Specialisation: Schizophrenia

Mental Health Nursing – Schizophrenia


Over the years, there has been a surge in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. It entails the disruptions between cognitive aptitudes and social functions. This article seeks to identify causative factors and treatment strategies related to schizophrenia, offering a platform enabling efficient comprehension of the disorder. The article also illustrates various research information on epidemiological, genetic, and neuroimaging, offering clinical treatment for the mental disorder and information on the knowledge gaps. Currently, the disorder is treated with pharmaceutical antipsychotics. However, innovations in neuroimaging and genetics have accelerated treatments with the integration of knowledge from various departments to accommodate circuit mechanisms. These are potential treatment strategies that might reduce and help the early diagnosis of the disorder,

Article summary

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder affiliated with negative symptoms. Individuals diagnosed with the disorder portray symptoms such as social withdrawal, demotivation, hallucinations, and a decline in cognitive functions. Most diagnoses are recognized during early adulthood. The disorder has a prevalence of approximately 1%, contributing to the increase in healthcare costs. The prevalence of the disorder contributes to a rise in healthcare costs, with an average of $150 billion (McCutcheon et al., 2022). The high costs to maintain the disorder lead to increased mortality rates. According to the JAMA Psychiatry, an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia has a 15% decrease in life expectancy compared to the general demographics. Moreover, the disorder accompanies various mental health issues such as suicide, anxiety, and depression. The review highlights that around 5%- 10% of individuals suffering from the disorder are susceptible to suicide.

The article depicts that the disorder can stem from the integration of genetic factors and early exposure to perinatal complications, which will later impact an individual’s cognitive development. Although the diagnosis of the disorder is identified during early adulthood, various research indicates that its origin commences during cognitive development. For instance, exposure to maternal and obstetric difficulties and inadequate access to a healthy diet during pregnancy can disrupt cognitive development, increasing their chances of schizophrenia. Furthermore, strategies using gene expression information of 500 individuals in contrast with the general population depict that genetics and environmental factors increase the disruption of the neurodevelopment causing schizophrenia compared to others. In addition, other factors, such as cortical excitatory, increase the risk of developing the disorder. For example, most individuals show signs of the disorder before age 16 and depict signs of cognitive challenges.

Although antipsychotic drugs such as D2 blockers are commonly used and accepted within the system, various innovations and developments have led to the implementation of probable strategies to treat the disorder. These treatments utilize neuroimaging, genetics, and research to identify the symptoms and integrate knowledge from various fields. Integrating various skills and knowledge enhances the translation of innovations into implementations, benefiting the treatment of the disorder.

Articles Critique

The article uses several alternative hypotheses to depict the disorder’s possible causes and treatment. The article highlights four aspects of the causes and potential treatment of the disorder. This is a strength since it uses the alternative to provide inductive inferences. Furthermore, it uses visuals to illustrate the scientific studies done in prior years. Using various hypotheses allows the article to identify the affiliations between the variables, which aids in the prediction strategies. The prediction strategies are based on empirical research denoting comprehensive topic comprehension. Although the articles use various empirical research to portray their arguments, it fails to anticipate future objections to the treatment options, which can cause doubts. For instance, it mentions psychological treatments which can reduce psychotic symptoms associated with the disorder but does not anticipate objections to the treatments. I recommend the article since it uses visuals and relevant empirical secondary research to conclude its findings. The aspects ensure precise comprehension and portrayal of the causative factors and treatments of schizophrenia.


The information considers the roles of various actors in altering neurodevelopment to prompt an individual to schizophrenia. It also indicates various treatment options and their impacts on the patient—for instance, the psychological treatments which help an individual address and reduce stress factors accelerating the disorder. The article illustrates that the treatment of the disorder affiliates with D2 receptor blockers. However, various cognitive development developments have increased knowledge integration across various fields.


Robert A. McCutcheon, T. R. (2022). Schizophrenia- An overview. JAMA Psychiatry.



The paper mainly focuses on schizophrenia as a disorder whereby it will capture its symptoms, differential diagnosis, etiological theories, and cultural and social factors about the prevalence rates as well as treatment and the outcomes with an inclusion of the interventions.


Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. They may hear voices others do not hear (McCutcheon et al.,2020). They may believe that other people are trying to harm them. These experiences can make everyday life very difficult. The common symptoms of schizophrenia include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized or catatonic behavior.

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis is the process of determining which diseases or conditions a patient may have, based on the signs and symptoms they are presenting with. In the case of schizophrenia, some of the other conditions that need to be considered are bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder (McCutcheon et al.,2020). It is essential to rule out any possible physical causes of the symptoms, such as brain tumors or strokes. Substance abuse can also cause psychotic symptoms and needs to be considered.


The etiological theories of schizophrenia are varied and numerous. Some of the most popular theories include the following: The neurobiological theory suggests that schizophrenia is caused by abnormalities in the brain, specifically in the brain areas responsible for processing information (Khavari, B., & Cairns,2020). This theory is supported by evidence from brain imaging studies that show differences in the brains of people with schizophrenia. The psychodynamic theory suggests that schizophrenia is caused by unresolved conflicts from the past, specifically conflicts that occur during the early stages of development. This theory is supported by evidence from studies that show that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have experienced trauma or abuse during childhood. The cognitive theory suggests that faulty thinking patterns cause schizophrenia. This theory is supported by evidence from studies that show that people with schizophrenia often have difficulty thinking logically and rationally. The sociocultural theory suggests that schizophrenia is caused by the stress of living in a society that is not supportive or understanding of mental illness. This theory is supported by evidence from studies that show that people with schizophrenia are more likely to live in poverty or come from minority groups.

Cultural and social factors

Many cultural factors are associated with the diagnosis and prevalence rates of schizophrenia. One of the most significant factors is how different cultures define and experience mental illness. In some cultures, mental illness is seen as a sign of weakness or as something shameful; in others, it is seen as a medical condition that needs treatment. This can lead to different rates of diagnosis and treatment between cultures. Another factor that can influence the diagnosis and prevalence of schizophrenia is the availability of mental health services. In some cultures, a stigma is attached to mental illness, making people reluctant to seek help. In addition, in some parts of the world, mental health services are not available or are not of a high enough standard to meet the needs of those with mental illness. Finally, genetic factors also play a role in the diagnosis and prevalence of schizophrenia. Specific genetic mutations have been linked to an increased risk of developing the condition, which may be more common in certain ethnic groups.

Many social factors are associated with the diagnosis and prevalence rates of schizophrenia. One social factor is the stigma associated with mental illness. This stigma can make it difficult for people with schizophrenia to get their needed help. It can also make it difficult for people to discuss their mental health problems. Another social factor is the lack of knowledge about mental health problems. This lack of knowledge can make it difficult for people to understand and accept mental illness.

Treatment and interventions

treatment for schizophrenia will vary depending on the individual and the severity of their condition. Some people with schizophrenia may require medication to help control their symptoms, while others may benefit from therapy or other forms of support. The interventions for schizophrenia can vary depending on the severity of the disorder but may include medication, therapy, and support groups (Correll & Schooler, 2020). The prognosis for schizophrenia also varies significantly from person to person. Some people with the condition may only experience mild symptoms, while others may have more severe symptoms that can interfere with their ability to function in everyday life. People with schizophrenia tend to have a higher risk for suicide and mental health problems than the general population.

The outcomes of treatment for schizophrenia can be divided into two categories: short-term and long-term. In the short term, the goal of treatment is to reduce the symptoms of the illness so that the individual can function in day-to-day life. In the long term, the goal of treatment is to prevent relapse and help the individual live a fulfilling and productive life. Medication is the most common treatment for schizophrenia (Correll & Schooler, 2020). Antipsychotic medication can help to reduce the symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations.

In some cases, antipsychotic medication can also help to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of relapse. Psychotherapy can also be an effective treatment for schizophrenia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help to improve coping skills and reduce the risk of relapse. Family therapy can help to improve communication and reduce stress within the family unit (Prigerson et al.,2021). In some cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be recommended. ECT is a treatment that uses electrical currents to stimulate the brain. ECT can be an effective treatment for severe cases of psychosis. Treatment for schizophrenia is often lifelong. The individual will need to continue to take medication and participate in psychotherapy even after symptoms have resolved. With treatment, most people with schizophrenia can live fulfilling and productive lives.

In conclusion, schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Its etiology is unknown, but it is believed to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into positive and negative symptoms, and the disorder can be challenging to diagnose because it often resembles other mental disorders. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.


Correll, C. U., & Schooler, N. R. (2020). Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review and Clinical Guide for Recognition, Assessment, and Treatment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment.

Khavari, B., & Cairns, M. J. (2020). Epigenomic dysregulation in schizophrenia: In search of disease etiology and biomarkers. Cells9(8), 1837.

McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA psychiatry77(2), 201-210.

Prigerson, H. G., Boelen, P. A., Xu, J., Smith, K. V., & Maciejewski, P. K. (2021). Validation of the new DSM‐5‐TR criteria for prolonged grief disorder and the PG‐13‐Revised (PG‐13‐R) scale. World Psychiatry20(1), 96-106.