Mental Health Nursing – Schizophrenia


Over the years, there has been a surge in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. It entails the disruptions between cognitive aptitudes and social functions. This article seeks to identify causative factors and treatment strategies related to schizophrenia, offering a platform enabling efficient comprehension of the disorder. The article also illustrates various research information on epidemiological, genetic, and neuroimaging, offering clinical treatment for the mental disorder and information on the knowledge gaps. Currently, the disorder is treated with pharmaceutical antipsychotics. However, innovations in neuroimaging and genetics have accelerated treatments with the integration of knowledge from various departments to accommodate circuit mechanisms. These are potential treatment strategies that might reduce and help the early diagnosis of the disorder,

Article summary

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder affiliated with negative symptoms. Individuals diagnosed with the disorder portray symptoms such as social withdrawal, demotivation, hallucinations, and a decline in cognitive functions. Most diagnoses are recognized during early adulthood. The disorder has a prevalence of approximately 1%, contributing to the increase in healthcare costs. The prevalence of the disorder contributes to a rise in healthcare costs, with an average of $150 billion (McCutcheon et al., 2022). The high costs to maintain the disorder lead to increased mortality rates. According to the JAMA Psychiatry, an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia has a 15% decrease in life expectancy compared to the general demographics. Moreover, the disorder accompanies various mental health issues such as suicide, anxiety, and depression. The review highlights that around 5%- 10% of individuals suffering from the disorder are susceptible to suicide.

The article depicts that the disorder can stem from the integration of genetic factors and early exposure to perinatal complications, which will later impact an individual’s cognitive development. Although the diagnosis of the disorder is identified during early adulthood, various research indicates that its origin commences during cognitive development. For instance, exposure to maternal and obstetric difficulties and inadequate access to a healthy diet during pregnancy can disrupt cognitive development, increasing their chances of schizophrenia. Furthermore, strategies using gene expression information of 500 individuals in contrast with the general population depict that genetics and environmental factors increase the disruption of the neurodevelopment causing schizophrenia compared to others. In addition, other factors, such as cortical excitatory, increase the risk of developing the disorder. For example, most individuals show signs of the disorder before age 16 and depict signs of cognitive challenges.

Although antipsychotic drugs such as D2 blockers are commonly used and accepted within the system, various innovations and developments have led to the implementation of probable strategies to treat the disorder. These treatments utilize neuroimaging, genetics, and research to identify the symptoms and integrate knowledge from various fields. Integrating various skills and knowledge enhances the translation of innovations into implementations, benefiting the treatment of the disorder.

Articles Critique

The article uses several alternative hypotheses to depict the disorder’s possible causes and treatment. The article highlights four aspects of the causes and potential treatment of the disorder. This is a strength since it uses the alternative to provide inductive inferences. Furthermore, it uses visuals to illustrate the scientific studies done in prior years. Using various hypotheses allows the article to identify the affiliations between the variables, which aids in the prediction strategies. The prediction strategies are based on empirical research denoting comprehensive topic comprehension. Although the articles use various empirical research to portray their arguments, it fails to anticipate future objections to the treatment options, which can cause doubts. For instance, it mentions psychological treatments which can reduce psychotic symptoms associated with the disorder but does not anticipate objections to the treatments. I recommend the article since it uses visuals and relevant empirical secondary research to conclude its findings. The aspects ensure precise comprehension and portrayal of the causative factors and treatments of schizophrenia.


The information considers the roles of various actors in altering neurodevelopment to prompt an individual to schizophrenia. It also indicates various treatment options and their impacts on the patient—for instance, the psychological treatments which help an individual address and reduce stress factors accelerating the disorder. The article illustrates that the treatment of the disorder affiliates with D2 receptor blockers. However, various cognitive development developments have increased knowledge integration across various fields.


Robert A. McCutcheon, T. R. (2022). Schizophrenia- An overview. JAMA Psychiatry.

Author: John Gromada
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