Specialisation: Religion

The Influence of Public Opinion and Religion on Abortion

Abortion is an extremely argumentative issue in the United States. The issue is controversial, sparking mixed reactions between those who support it and those that go against it. This literature review will focus on eight scholarly sources that would establish public opinions and the effect on religion as regards abortion. This essay aims to examine the potential effects on public opinion, religion, TRAP laws, and their influence on admittance to harmless abortion care.

Public opinion is an important factor when we come to the issue of abortion in the United States. Several factors are believed to shape the conception and understanding of public opinion as regards abortion. Such factors include religious beliefs, age, political beliefs, and an individual’s gender. A study conducted by Adamczyk et al. (2020) established that the issue of abortion is so much complex, and factors such as religion, political thought, regionalism, age, and gender greatly influence abortion. The study incorporated opinion polls, survey data, and interviews, mainly featuring United States women, racial minorities, and young individuals (Adamczyk et al., 2020). The study’s findings indicated that different opinions regarding abortion erupted, and most of the individuals supported women being offered an opportunity to make their own decisions and choices on abortion (Adamczyk et al., 2020). Dissimilarities in opinions were also noted on age, ethnicity, and gender. The Whites were more opposed to abortion than the Latinos and African Americans, who appeared to support it fully.

Another study in the United States revealed that abortion led to negative consequences, particularly for women’s health. Some laws are believed to have resulted in the termination of abortion clinics, implying that abortion is detrimental (Austin & Harper, 2018). According to a study conducted by Austin and Harper, TRAP laws have enabled women to access abortion services; hence their health remains protected. This is because TRAP resulted in the closure of abortion facilities, therefore prohibiting the conduction of abortion. This implies that fewer women will find it possible to access and acquire abortion services. The authors established that TRAP laws have caused delays in accessing abortion and thus increased financial utilization for females seeking abortion care (Austin & Harper 2018). They additionally established that TRAP laws have negatively affected women’s well-being, resulting in reduced admittance to contraception, increased chances of contracting STIs, and increased chances of unplanned pregnancies.

Much debate has erupted on the role of political identity and religion in abortion in the United States. Religious attachments greatly influence a politician’s stance and opinion on abortion. Majorly, politicians who are attached to the Catholic faith strongly oppose abortion. On the other hand, politicians who are non-Christians tend to support abortion strongly. Research by Bhalotra et al. (2021) examined the purpose of religious identity in prompting attitudes concerning abortion. This study discovered that people who classify themselves as religious are likelier to object to abortion than individuals who do not identify as spiritual. The study established that politicians who supported abortion were most likely to receive more votes and support from voters (Bhalotra et al., 2021). This meant that the public views dependent on the politician’s stance on the issue of abortion. The authors concluded that spiritual identity is crucial in determining public opinion on abortion in America.

Research by Cook established that public ideology and politics affect abortion. The study showed that public opinions regarding abortion were dividend as polarization increased in political discourse on the same issue. The study dwelt on dynamic changes in public ideology about abortion and the effects of these changes on the political phenomenon (Cook, 2019). The ideation of abortion in America is complex, and many women are encouraged to carry out abortion or choose for themselves what they deem right and effective for their health (Cook, 2019). It is thus evident that politics and public ideology are free to choose their path as regards abortion. Another study was conducted to determine the looming crisis of access to secure abortion care in America. Strict restrictions have been imposed on securing abortion care in clinics and increased defunding. According to Grossman et al. (2022), fewer women can comfortably access abortion services in clinics. The study included interviews with patients and health providers to determine how to access abortion care (Grossman et al., 2022). The study established that accessing safe abortion in the United States is becoming gradually difficult hence negatively impending women’s health.

Research by Kortsmit et al. (2020) show that abortion rates are gradually decreasing in the United States. The study conducted pregnancies, birth rates, and abortions of different ages females, and it was established that abortions have greatly reduced in the current years. In contrast, the rates of unplanned pregnancies have remained balanced (Kortsmit et al., 2020). This study goes hand in hand with Maddow-Zimet’s study, which establishes that the rates of abortion in the near future will decline. According to this study, since the peak of abortion in the United States in 1980, it is likely that abortion trends and rates will continue to reduce in the upcoming years (Maddow-Zimet, 2022).

Svenaeus (2018) discovered the ethics of abortion and pregnancy in the United States. The study noticed that pregnancy is a multifaceted experience designed by many factors, including some cultural and spiritual beliefs. The author believes that a lot is required regarding ethics regarding abortion (Svenaeus, 2018). Such approaches are believed to bring light to abortion and guarantee that the female’s rights are not taken for granted. Women should be allowed to make their choices as far as their health is concerned. Nobody, even the law, should stand in the way of women’s rights and decisions. Therefore, the study concludes that a strategy on the ethics of abortion is required to ascertain that ladies’ rights are treasured.

Generally, the studies from this literature review exhibit that public ideology on abortion is divided. In the review, the TRAP laws and the politician’s identity impact individual views (Austin & Harper 2018). Moreover, the social media coverage on the issue of abortion is prejudiced, and access to secured abortion is becoming progressively limited in the United States. Also, the trend of unplanned pregnancies has remained secure. Lastly, the ethics regarding abortion are multifaceted and context-reliant, and a person’s pregnancy experience might impact their opinion on the issue (Svenaeus, 2018).

In conclusion, the eight scholarly sources in the literature review establish that spiritual and political beliefs and other factors comprehensively impact public ideology on abortion in America. The literature further reveals that restricting laws and the absence of access to abortion clinics have deleteriously affected females’ well-being and rights. Further research is required to comprehend the consequences of public opinion and policy-related methods of abortion on women in the United States.


Adamczyk, A., Kim, C., & Dillon, L. (2020). Examining public opinion about abortion: a mixed-methods systematic review of research over the last 15 years. Sociological Inquiry, 90(4), 920-954.

Austin, N., & Harper, S. (2018). Assessing the impact of TRAP laws on abortion and women’s health in the USA: a systematic review. BMJ sexual & reproductive health, 44(2), 128- 134.

Bhalotra, S., Clots-Figueras, I., & Iyer, L. (2021). Religion and abortion: The role of politician identity. Journal of Development Economics, 153, 102746.

Cook, E. A. (2019). Between two absolutes: Public opinion and the politics of abortion. Routledge.

Grossman, D., Perritt, J., & Grady, D. (2022). The impending crisis of access to safe abortion care in the US. JAMA Internal Medicine.

Kortsmit, K., Jatlaoui, T. C., Mandel, M. G., Reeves, J. A., Oduyebo, T., Petersen, E., & Whiteman, M. K. (2020). Abortion surveillance—United States, 2018. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 69(7), 1.

Maddow-Zimet, I. (2022, August 30). Pregnancies, Births and Abortions in the United States, 1973–2017: National and State Trends by Age. Guttmacher Institute.

Svenaeus, F. (2018). Phenomenology of pregnancy and the ethics of abortion. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy, 21(1), 77–87.

Chinese and Japanese Religions

Religion and culture in China and Japan have always been important. Together with the rest of early Chinese civilization, Buddhism had an influence. The local traditions were compelled to identify themselves as an alternative to the Chinese influence since Buddhism was a cohesive system of beliefs. Meanwhile, Confucian ideas about society and politics made their way to Japan. My inquiries about these faiths’ similarities and differences, social effects, and interactions with other religions have all been prompted by Unit 3’s study of them. I found some of the answers to these queries with the aid of the course materials, but other issues remained.

One of the most significant concepts to me is the importance of Confucianism and Shintoism, which are fundamental aspects of Chinese and Japanese cultures. The Five Virtues of Benevolence, Fidelity, Righteousness, Wisdom, and Propriety were emphasized by Confucianism. Confucianism was a guiding ideology that impacted Chinese rites and practices throughout the four phases of life—birth, maturity, marriage, and death—and put specific stress on the importance of the family. Japan is a conformist society where peace, respect for one another, and collective judgment are prized (Corduan, 2013). The requirement for societal peace gives rise to other values like cooperation, diligence, and conflict avoidance, and the notion that family comes first is a distinctive cultural element that influences Chinese culture. Common Japanese values are influenced by Japanese religion as well. Both faiths stress the need to coexist peacefully with people and the natural world.

The first religion practiced by Japan’s native population was Shinto, which dates back to the third century B.C.E. Although having no founder or holy book, Shinto represents a set of principles that may coexist peacefully with any other religion. When Buddhism first arrived in China in the sixth century, Shinto began to incorporate certain Buddhist practices. Since Japanese society is essentially nonreligious, many people now see Shinto more as a tradition than a religion.

Unlike many other religions, there is no such thing as good and evil in Shinto. People are seen to be good, while bad spirits create evil. Believers must perform sacrifices, prayers, and purification rites to protect themselves from evil spirits. Cleaning is seen as a method to purge the inner mind of contaminants. Shinto, which loosely translates as “the path of the Gods,” is based on the belief in kami, or “spirits of the dead,” which may be found in plants, animals, rivers, mountains, and other natural phenomena (Corduan, 2013). In other words, when a person passes away, they turn into kami, and the kami of important people are kept in Shinto shrines.

Since animals are said to contain the spirits of the deceased, who serve as guardians of their successors, Shinto is an animalistic religion. Some spirits have many skills and tasks, including being guardians of the earth and protecting their families. The adherents will get protection and approval from spirits if they live by Shinto beliefs (Corduan, 2013).

The “So You Meet” section on how Christians should interact with non-Christians also supports honesty, which can be seen in anything that people do, whether it be their job or relationships, when they do it the best they can and with a true heart. The author encourages respecting, understanding, and loving people of various religions, and I wholeheartedly agree with this position. According to the author, this approach encourages religious tolerance. One may better comprehend their values by listening to others. One may appreciate and comprehend a people’s traditions by being familiar with its religion and culture. By accepting and loving people for who they are as people, one may forge real ties with them and get over prejudice. This strategy is necessary for the peaceful coexistence of people from different faiths and cultural backgrounds. The author strongly emphasizes valuing diversity and acknowledging the range of opinions and actions present in the world (Corduan, 2013). It demonstrates to Christians how to have meaningful and polite interactions with non-Christians.

Through studying various faiths, one might have a deeper understanding of their ideas and beliefs. The author recommends exploring beyond compatibility when investigating diverse religions. Instead, approach the subject with openness and interest while honoring and appreciating diversity. This sentence encourages readers to consider how other religions align with their own beliefs while keeping an open mind and a willingness to learn. There may be connections between studying Chinese and Japanese religions and various careers and personal relationships. For instance, those who work in international commerce or politics may find it beneficial to comprehend the cultural norms and practices of various faiths. Understanding diverse cultures also improves personal relationships, encouraging tolerance and respect for others.

The intricacy of the faiths and the challenge of remembering the many thoughts and ideas put forward during the learning sessions were two issues I encountered. Nevertheless, after dissecting the larger themes, I could comprehend the subject matter better. It would be beneficial to have more interactive sessions, such as group discussions or debates, to promote critical thinking and consider other points of view.

In conclusion, Unit 3’s study of Chinese and Japanese religions has been interesting. I was able to better grasp the components of different faiths’ lifestyles, beliefs, and practices within a specific culture thanks to the course materials, which provided a variety of intriguing concepts and behaviors. Understanding different faiths allows for a better understanding and acceptance of diversity in various vocations and personal settings.


Corduan, W. (2013). Neighboring faiths: A Christian introduction to world religions. InterVarsity Press.

How Religion Influences Terrorism

Religion and terrorism are two different ideas. These activities specifically vary from one another and are motivated by various objectives. Terrorists use coercion and fear-mongering to incite violence to grab the attention of the authorities. Contrarily, religion is based on a strong belief in something supernatural that promotes peaceful coexistence. Both faiths aim to inspire adherents to alter their lives to please God, despite significant major variances. Those who follow either set of guidelines must behave differently to accomplish their objectives. A terrorist could, for example, murder helpless individuals to criticize the government. A believer must be devoted to their deity and lead a virtuous life to get assistance. It consequently becomes unclear if there is a causal relationship between terrorism and religion or whether one has an impact on the other. This essay examines how religion affects terrorism by examining Islam and Christianity.

Many terrorist organizations explain their actions by citing religious principles. Since the 11th century, terrorist organizations and personalities, such as the Ismailis Nizari, have murdered influential people to overthrow corrupt governmental and religious regimes. The prevalence of terrorism driven by religion has also increased recently. Many terrorist organizations, including Al-Shabaab, Al-Qaeda, the Army of God and Boko haram, target people of different religions. According to research, these organizations believe it is right to murder people in the name of their deity because it represents his might (Shapiro & Maras, 2019). These organizations also radicalize people and inspire others to follow their views. For instance, the terrorist group Boko Haram abducted hundreds of female students in West Africa and forced them to convert to Islam. They were then used to detonate suicide bombs after becoming radicals.

The Qur’an is quite clear about what Muslims must and must not do. The Qur’an often warns believers against acting like terrorists. First, forcing someone to change their faith against their choice is against the law. The Cow 2:256 asserts that religion is powerless. Second, The Cow 2:190 asserts that people should not be hostile since God detests hostile people and commands Christians to fight in God’s way (Dawson, 2018). Homicide for any purpose other than those permitted by law is prohibited by Qur’anic verse 6:151. Certain writings seem to support terrorism. Under Surah 8:12, Allah will terrorize unbelievers and order believers to amputate their fingernails and skulls. These works, meanwhile, could be misapplied and misinterpreted under the wrong circumstances. It seems sensible to think that Islam forbids terrorism.

Some terrorists are inspired to commit crimes by their faith in Christ. The Bible is used by extremist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) as justification for their horrible deeds. These organizations claim verses like Numbers 31:18, where God commands the Israelites to slaughter all men and women save virgins, whom they are to adopt as their own. However, the Bible forbids all forms of attacks, comprising terrorism. Terrorists named Charles B, R. Berry, and Jay are believed to have attacked bombs, family planning workplaces, and media organizations in 1991 (Dawson, 2018). They also held anti-Semitic prejudice and alleged that God had approved of their terrible actions.

Most terrorists base their justification for their conduct on a misunderstanding of religion, which they then use to justify their crimes. Despite this, this behaviour is strictly banned in Islam and Christianity. The vast majority of those who engage in acts of religious terrorism are devout believers but have a limited understanding of religion.


Dawson, L. L. (2018). Debating the role of religion in the motivation of religious terrorism. Nordic Journal of Religion and Society31(2), 98-117.

Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M. H. (2019). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of ISIS cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism42(1-2), 88-119.

Media Effects on Islam


Information transmission and acquisition have improved over the years with technological advancement. Media platforms have shifted to adopt more sophisticated and easy software to use for the transmission of information. Media platforms serve as mediums in which individuals sort after information, and they also help increase the representation of minority groups. Media presents vast information, including timely updates on what is happening globally, keeping individuals up to date. However, media presents shortcomings as they have the potential to affect an individual’s behavior and religion depending on what it offers.

The media presentation of Muslims and Islam

Media representation of minority groups has been an issue of great concern, with surveys focusing on the media’s presentation of race, ethnicity, and multiculturalism. Ahmed, and Matthes (pg 220), state that Muslims and Islam serve as the top minority affairs in the world with debates and censures. According to Ahmed and Matthes (pg 220), since the 9/11 event, media and political debates are centered on Islam and Muslims. Muslims and Islam have been victimized across many societies, being feared. Ahmed and Matthes (pg 220) denote that the representation of Muslims by the media has led to the resentment ad alienation of Muslims from societies. Media plays an essential role in creating and distributing ideologies among individuals. Images and stories showcased in the media provide resources in which individuals can organize a common culture and insert themselves. Media contributes to the development of social values, ideologies, and stereotypes of individuals in the community.

Representation of minorities via media has often been under scrutiny as they encourage stereotypes. Ahmed and Matthes (pg 221) note that news coverage in Britain in 1960 encouraged the assumptions that people of color are associated with problems, aberrations, and oddities. In addition, blacks are viewed as being less civilized and culturally inferior in the UK due to differences in color and race (Ahmed and Matthes, pg 221). The media presentation of people of color resulted in stereotypes and negative beliefs towards these individuals as it was being reported for everyone to denote. The media develop ideologies of people of color being less civilized and inferior through images and videos. Individuals within the society acknowledge these presentations and relay them to these individuals oppressing and stereotyping them. The media significantly influences individuals, hence their constant association with the misrepresentation of minority groups.

Misrepresentation of Muslims and Islam in the media has been associated with past events involving Islam. Ahmed, and Matthes (pg 222), state that the anti-muslim discourse in the Western press began during the Iranian revolution in 1979, the US hostage crisis, and the periodic crisis over Libya and the Middle East. Wars in Iraq and the 9/11 event amplified the negative perception of Islam as media platforms captured the events and linked them to Muslims (Ahmed and Matthes, pg 222). Media representation of Islam religion often associates the religion with irrational violence that has no regard for women and mobs. According to Ahmed and Matthes (pg 222), a recent survey portrays Islam as a religion of monolithic, sexist, and homogenized individuals. Muslims are often described as heartless, brutal, uncivilized, and religious fanatics who can do anything when directed by their religious leaders. Islam’s media representation is often associated with adverse outcomes such as terrorism, wars, and sexists. Although Muslims are depicted as religious individuals, their perception of other individuals differs due to the media. Occurrences of war and terror attack groups often comprise individuals from Islam; hence, people assume all Muslims bear the same characteristics as individuals depicted in the media.

Impact of social media on Muslims

Social media act as a media platform that helps establish social communication between individuals, family, and friends. Islam (pg 95) denotes that interactions between human beings have changed over the years with the development of computers and networks. Social relationships are slowly shifting to adopt the new technological advancement in place. The adoption of social media has rapidly grown, being part and parcel of every human, with Muslims also adapting to the changes in communication mediums (Islam, pg 96). Changes in communication have resulted in people forgoing old means and adopting new standards to remain afloat and current with day-to-day occurrences. Social media has made communication accessible as it is easy to use and learn.

The adoption and use of social media in the Islam community are rapidly rising in Muslim societies adopting social media. According to Islam (pg 96), social media is an excellent way for people to communicate as it can reach a wide range of audiences irrespective of their locality or region. Islam (pg 96) states that media has the potential to change Islam’s religion and the perception of Muslims among individuals as it only requires individuals to be open-minded and Muslims to adopt the new means of communication.

Positive effects of social media on Muslim

Social media is a new means of communication and modern life aiming to reinforce and enhance communication of individuals irrespective of their locality or residence. Social media has a wide range of connectivity enabling people to communicate with one another at ease (Islam, pg 99). Social media bears many benefits that seek to help improve people’s livelihoods irrespective of their ethnicity, race, or culture. Islam (pg, 99) denotes that the adoption of social media by Muslims will help enhance interaction, and socialization, teach the Quran, spread Quran references, and spread Islam’s source of information and development. Islam(pg 99) states that social media is set to help improve Islam society as it will unite and empower them as they will be in touch with one another irrespective of distance. Social media helps enhance interaction between friends and family as they can communicate via different media platforms other than messaging and calling. An individual can share opinions and receive timely feedback as well as spread messages to different people.

Social media seeks to benefit the Islam community when adopted as it helps teach Quran and share Quran references and the growth of the Islam community. According to (Islam, pg 100), social media is a platform that will help spread and teach the Islam religion ensuring the growth of its members. The Quran states that ”the greatest between you (Muslims are persons who learn the Quran and teach it.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4739). Social media helps enhance the teaching of the Quran among Muslims as religious leaders can record their instructions and share them via their social media platforms, making them accessible to everyone. Acquisition of Quran references has been made easier with social media as one can search for a particular verse. Social media has helped save time an individual had to incur while looking for references through the Quran. In addition, social media seeks to help spread the Islam religion to increase Islam followers. Teachings on Islam are accessible on social media platforms as they can be posted and accessed by anyone spreading the Islam religion.

Social media helps spread information on various entities that may be of use to individuals. Social media act as news outlets keeping individuals in the know about different occurrences worldwide (Islam, pg 103). People can quickly get information on employment opportunities and trending news keeping them updated. Media carries a wide range of benefits that aim at benefiting the Islam community, from increasing its number of followers to empowering its followers. Muslims who are in business or want to venture into business need only to have a smartphone to identify trending commodities in the market. An individual can access anything and everything they want with just a click on the device.

Negative effects of Social media on Muslims

Media presents a variety of benefits aiming to improve an individual’s life, although in the process, possesses great harm. Islam (pg 104) states that since the internet is easily accessible and cheap, it gives an advantage to individuals who have other ulterior motives. Social media helps spread information, though; at times, the information may be designed to target a specific group causing harm. Islam (pg 105) denotes that social media encourages promiscuous behaviors characterized by lazy individuals, posting unnecessary statements, crudity, and stereotyping. Though social media is an invention that aims to better human existence by easing interaction and relationships, it also encourages promiscuous activities.

Social media encourages stereotyping and promiscuous activity among individuals. The use of social media encourages stereotyping of individuals as it can be used to portray individuals or religions as being wrong. Ahmed and Matthes (pg 221) note that news coverage in Britain in 1960 encouraged the assumptions that people of color are associated with problems, aberrations, and oddities. In addition, Ahmed and Matthes (pg 222) state that a recent survey portrays Islam as a religion of monolithic, sexist, and homogenized individuals. Social media has a wide range of outreach; hence any negative information about Islam reaches an enormous group of individuals. People look into social media for information, and if they get negative news related to Muslims results in their patronization and being viewed as a terrorist. Furthermore, social media discourages public interaction among people as they need not go outside to meet their friends. Social media encourages laziness among the young generation as they do not exercise or even do any house chores. The young generation is addicted to social media, which may sometimes result in young Muslims not conforming to teachings and adopting what they see on social media. Social media also encourages violence by depicting images of violence, making it seem okay encouraging Muslims to join terror groups.

Effects of social media on Muslim Students

Media networks have expanded, with social media platforms having a vast number of users. Social media platforms are interactive as users can communicate freely with each other, sharing images, videos, and messages (Sule, pg 31). The vast possibilities made available by social media have resulted in its adoption among youths and old individuals. The platforms are diverse as they allow individuals to engage with one another at a low cost, helping students seek clarification from their teachers and have discussion sessions. Despite social media having several benefits to individuals, it also affects their development and performance, more so students.

Sule (pg 32) states that students use social media for leisure entertainment other than educational purposes. In addition, social media services expose individuals to pornographic content and encourage immoral acts. According to Sule (pg 32), the mass appeal of social media on the internet has increased the time youths spend online. Accessibility and social media have had a negative impact on the performance of Muslim students (Sule, pg 41). Access to Facebook, WhatsApp, and telegrams causes distractions to Muslim students as they tend to focus much on current trends rather than on their studies. Students often use social media platforms to watch movies and interact rather than search for learning materials or contact their tutors for clarification. Social media acts as a distraction for young Muslim students as they spend more time interacting with their friends other than with their books. In addition, students begin practicing immoral behaviors as they experiment with what they see. Access to pornographic content on social media deludes Islam teachings causing young individuals to engage in promiscuous acts.


Media plays a vital role in shaping individual attributes and perceptions of different issues. For some time, the Islam religion has been attributed to a terrorist due to their representation by the media. Media deludes individual perceptions creating an ideology that causes harm. Despite the media’s negative presentation of Islam, it has helped increase followers of the religion. Media has also helped benefit the Islam community as it helps increase their interaction and spread the faith.


Ahmed, Saifuddin, and Jörg Matthes. “Media Representation Of Muslims And Islam From 2000 To 2015: A Meta-Analysis”. International Communication Gazette, vol 79, no. 3, 2016, pp. 219-244. SAGE Publications, https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048516656305. Accessed 21 May 2022.

Islam, Md. Tarequl. “THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON MUSLIM SOCIETY: FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE. ” Researchgate, 2019, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338533726_THE_IMPACT_OF_SOCIAL_MEDIA_ON_MUSLIM_SOCIETY_FROM_ISLAMIC_PERSPECTIVE. Accessed 21 May 2022.

Sule, Mohammed Maga. “Social Media And Its Effects On Muslim Students: The Case Of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.” UMRAN – International Journal Of Islamic And Civilizational Studies, vol 5, no. 2, 2018. Penerbit UTM Press, https://doi.org/10.11113/umran2018.5n2.201. Accessed 21 May 2022.

Comparing and Contrasting Religions: Christianity and Buddhism

Religion is a fundamental part of most of the world’s population since the religion one honors are determined at birth. The religious division has categorized religion based on geographical boundaries. The western religions are Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, while the eastern ones are Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shinto, Sikhism, and Jainism. While there are commonalities between these religions, contrasts have also manifested. Different religions have also defined their practice, and Buddhism and Christianity play a key role in these initiatives because they are one of the earliest. Buddhism and Christianity are basic to many people’s lives but fundamentally refuted by every other practice and doctrine. This essay will discuss the contrast and the commonalities between the eastern and western religions (Christianity and Buddhism).

People who are not initiated into these religions can undoubtedly realize that Buddhism and Christianity are confusing or correlate. However, their distinction is clear, and the doctrines and practices are unique to each believer of the religion (Hassan 2019). In other words, Christianity is widespread, and the faith is unequalled because of the ten commandments. These elements forbid a man from worshipping other gods, making other idols, and using the lord’s name in vain. The commandments also advise Christians to observe the sabbath and keep it holy. The Christian elements are directional and improve the Christian lifestyle. This way, Christians can follow a certain direction God wants them to follow. (Hassan 2019).

Other commandments require Christians to respect their father and mother and forbid them from committing murder. Additionally, Christians are warned against committing adultery, stealing and bearing false witness on another person’s things or coveting your neighbor’s property.” These commandments are involved and are the core basics of the Christian life. On the other hand, Buddhism also abides by a similar list of principles. These elements include: “Do not take life.” The second element is “Thou shall not steal.” The third is “Thou shall not over-indulge in sexual or sensual pleasure. The fourth one says, “Thou shall not lie.”

The fifth one says, “Thou shall not abuse the mind with toxic substances. These guiding principles closely relate to the ten commandments in Christianity. Another commonality is that these religions have a founding figure or someone who started the religion. In 33 AD, Jesus of Nazareth founded Christianity, while in the 6th century AD, Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddha (Mishra 2019). Christianity is many centuries older, but it is more than 15 centuries old. Jesus and his disciples established Christianity in the first century after his resurrection in Jerusalem. Therefore, even though these religions have opposed doctrines, they have a fore figure because they founded these religions. Christianity has gradually become present in every continent and the strongest religion in the Americas and Europe. Buddhism has also spread globally and is currently more concentrated in Asia.

Christianity and Buddhism are also similar despite their contrasts. The most substantial difference between the two is Theism. Christianity’s major focus is how humans can achieve a good connection with the greater God almighty. On the other hand, Buddhism discourages a deity outside of oneself and pursues to attain nirvana by defining an individual’s actions. Nirvana or enlightenment can be attained by abiding by the five guiding concepts of Buddhism. Buddhism and Christianity differ based on their regard for the afterlife (Mishra 2019). Christianity educates us that when an individual attains a correct relationship with God, the creator, the person is saved. The individual must also place faith in Jesus Christ, and his redemption will be valid through the cross. In Christianity, an individual goes to heaven after the physical life ends but must first seek Jesus Christ.

Buddhism introduces that an individual is reborn into a perpetual cycle of reincarnation depending on the person’s actions and the doctrine of Karma. In other words, Karma in Buddhism is a tradition and is an action that acknowledges action driven by intention. The action leads to future consequences. These intentions are regarded and determine factors in the rebirth kind in samsara, the cycle of rebirth (Mishra 2019). In essence, Christianity positions faith in its founder Jesus while Buddhism encompasses the works of the adherents to earn nirvana. This religion is attainable through an individual’s good works, while Christianity relies on the works of Jesus Christ.

It is best to address that while an individual may have an inherent prejudice when assessing religion, it is critical to interpret the world perception of those people who hold another faith than that of an individual’s faith. Comparing and contrasting these two religions imposes important lessons on everyone’s faith. We can learn more about cultures and customers and achieve a much more precise interpretation of what the world provides based on religion. The similarities and contrasts also play a critical role in identifying how people behave and lead certain lifestyles. For instance, Christianity makes people live in a way that contrasts with other religions. On the other hand, Buddhism also has its religious doctrines, which render its followers and shape their characters and mannerism.


Hassan, A. M. (2019). The link with the creator in the ten commandments in Judaism and Christianity and the attitude of Islam from it. Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities26(2).

Mishra, S. (2019). Tracing Buddhism in Mongolia: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Think India Journal22(14), 13861-1387.

Christianity and Islam


The two religions, Christianity and Islam, are the biggest and in bulk practiced in present times (Kibrabaev,2020). Islam and Christianity believe in the existence of a supernatural being Allah and God, respectively. Christianity refers to a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, while Islam considers Jesus Christ to be a prophet, a messenger, and a messiah. Islam was founded by the prophet Muhammad who is believed to have been born clean and circumcised and had fallen to the ground, snatched up a handful of earth, and looked towards heaven. On the other hand, Christianity is a major religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth, the anointed one of God. These religions have different beliefs that define how they view or take things and conduct themselves. These concepts, Christianity and Islam, are expounded in the rest of this work by citing their development, divisions, and how they influence politics and society.

Islam spread through the army conquest of Arab Muslims that happened sometime after Islam had begun, and a small portion of the people converted to Muslims at that time. As Islam ideas moved along many trades and pilgrimage routes, they blended with the local cultures and changed into new kinds and interpretations of Islam. Christianity was spread first by Jesus’ disciples, who spread to Jewish communities across the empire through His word of teachings. They were sent after Jesus’ crucifixion to spread the word of the new faith. They were influential in spreading the teachings of  Jesus and the Christian religion after his death. Apostle Paul also travelled across the Roman Empire, preaching in some of the cities in the empire, and moving into homes and synagogues. Christianity is the widest spread of all faith and has many believers, including the Roman Catholic, Protestants Churches, and Eastern Orthodox Churches, who preached the gospel. Those who believed in the resurrection of Jesus Christ are called Christians. Islam was brought up on the teachings of Muhammed as a way of uttering or giving yourself to the will of God. Those who followed the teachings of Muhammad were Muslims, meaning submitters to God. Muslims outlooked Christians as unbelievers because of the Trinity. They viewed them as religious taxpayers and Christians. On the other hand, Christians saw Islam as a false religion because they did not accept the trinity, the holiness of Jesus, the transfiguration of Jesus, and the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Christians believed that the Son of God was holy and sinless, while Islam instructs that the Son of God was one of the significant prophets of  Yahweh. And that the son of Yahweh is not holy and does not make part of the threesome, but they were convinced that the Son of God was created like Adam. True believers instruct that the Son of God was rebuked to demise, transfigured, and in three days, he rose from the dead. Islam teaches that the Son of God was like any other prophet that brought his children to worship Yahweh. Muslims believed that the Son of God was rebuked for the transfiguration, then superhumanly rescued out of the performance, together with being upraised to paradise. Alternatively, the Son of God was transfigured in Islam, His exact likeness done in his place.

True believers do not express when the Son of God does come back, but he will return like a thief; no one knows the hour when Jesus will come. Islam states that Jesus will return at a white tower the east of Damascus. Christians believe that when Jesus comes back, he will rule for one thousand years, while Muslims believe that when he comes, he shall regulate and stay for forty years, have children, and be buried. Many true believers believe that the Comforter is Yahweh and is the third member of the threesome, while in Islam, the Comforter is believed to be an Angel.

Christianity and Islam have predominantly affected modern cultures and societies. As Christianity began from the followers of Jesus Christ, the doctrinal teachings of Christ, which were based on Love towards God and one another, were primarily emphasized. Thus, Christians used to live together as communities who gave everything to support one another. As it spread through the Roman empire, it received heavy pushback from the governing authorities. This did not, however, hinder them from increasing in numbers. The adage coined as if you can’t beat them, join them was applied. The roman empire came to incorporate Christianity into its system of government. Some political leaders came to be religious leaders. Religion came to bear heavier weight than the politics of the day. Even after the fall of the roman empire, the Roman Catholic system had gained its roots in the society.

Many Muslim countries like Pakistan, Jordan, and Egypt had their laws and believed that they should strictly follow the Quran, while pluralities in Turkey said that their laws should cling to the values and truth of Islam. On the other hand, Christianity had spread in Europe through tough disciplines, and reformation was needed. Through this, Martin Luther and John Calvin came up to challenge the doctrines that had emerged, such as atonement for sins based on paying homage to the religious leaders and specific understandings of purgatory, which caused a split in Christianity and the rise of Protestants. Due to different interpretations of the bible, Christianity broke further. It emerged in different churches, such as the Anglican Church in England, which has had an enormous impact on the monarch to the present day. But in this, Christianity still spread West to America. In America, many institutions and political systems were founded on Christian doctrines. Quotes such as; God Bless America, and In God, We Trust is still in use today. Nevertheless, we cannot contradict the touch of Christianity is being lost by the day.

Islam began from the teachings of the prophet Mohammed, and this made them gain popularity and interest in Arabia and parts of Asia. Submission to God was high on the list in the doctrines of peace, unity, and equality. As found in the Quran, the Sharia laws strictly came after(Habiburrahim et al.,2020). They had disciplines that were a must, as Muslims like praying five times a day, fasting, and dressing codes strictly noted. Prophet Muhammad was summoned to Medina to rule over it as a neutral leader, and this made the territory expand to Mecca; this was due to the impact caused by army conquest.


In this paper, we have defined Christianity and Islam and given clear details on the development of Christianity and Islam. Christianity was born from the Jewish tradition founded by Jesus of Nazareth and Islam was founded by Prophet Muhammad. The divisions between Christianity and Islam; for example, Christians believe in the Trinity, which means three in one, God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, while Islam does not believe in the Trinity. And lastly, the influence of Christianity and Islam on politic


Habiburrahim, H., Rahmiati, Z., Muluk, S., Akmal, S., & Aziz, Z. A. (2020). Language, identity, and ideology: Analysing discourse in Aceh sharia law implementation. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics9(3), 599-607.

Kirabaev, N., & Chistyakova, O. (2020). Knowing God in Eastern Christianity and Islamic Tradition: A Comparative Study. Religions11(12), 675.