Specialisation: Cybersecurity

Leadership Excellence Across Diverse Domains: Insights From the Military, Corporate, and Marketing Arenas


This investigation explores three domains: the U.S. Marine Corps, a top-performing marketing team, and an organisation where an influential leader made a lasting impression. Every portion offers a different viewpoint on the significance of specific abilities, tactics, and flexibility in promoting success (Baas, 2022). This investigation unearths exciting insights relevant to various disciplines, ranging from the regimented and physically authoritarian ethos of the Marine to the subtle interdependence within a marketing department, and lastly, to the transforming leadership style of a prominent workplace figure.

Historical and Cyber-Security Perspective for the Marine Corps

The U.S. Marine Corps has a long history of valuing a combination of physical, cognitive, and interpersonal abilities to ensure effectiveness in various operational environments (Paul et al., 2018). Traditionally, Marines have been expected to excel in the following areas:

Physical Fitness

Physically fit Marines are famous (Samaras et al., 2019). This comprises agility, endurance, and strength. Physical fitness is essential to Marine training to withstand combat and work under challenging conditions.

Cognitive Abilities

Marines are educated to think swiftly and to make good decisions under duress. This requires problem-solving, adaptability, and quick assessment (Soeters, 2018). Cognitive skills are essential for leadership and operations.


The Marine Corps values discipline. The Marine Code of Conduct requires Marines to obey commands without inquiry (Zehndorfer, 2020). This discipline is crucial for unit cohesion and mission precision.


Marines must be proficient with firearms (Baas, 2022). Combat requires accurate and efficient target engagement.

Teamwork and Leadership

Marines are educated to collaborate well (Paul et al., 2018). Every Marine must lead, and leadership skills are taught at various levels. Mission success requires good teamwork and leadership.

Additional abilities Significant for Marines involved in cyber-security

Technical Proficiency: Cybersecurity demands detailed knowledge of technological advances, networks, and computers (Samaras et al., 2019). Marines must master cybersecurity technologies, methods, and processes.

Analytical Skills: Cybersecurity requires enormous data analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection (Soeters, 2018). Marines must comprehend and address cyber risks.

Cyber Threat Intelligence: Cybersecurity Marines must be abreast of new threats and vulnerabilities (Zehndorfer, 2020). This entails gathering and evaluating intelligence to prevent cyberattacks.

Adaptability and Continuous Learning: Cybersecurity dangers change frequently (Baas, 2022). Marines in this profession must be flexible and willing to learn to remain ahead of cyber threats.

Overcoming Challenges to Secure the Future of the Marine Corps

Many variables make it difficult to recruit the proper skills for the U.S. Marine Corps. Traditional values like fitness, discipline, and war readiness may not match cybersecurity skills. Technology is constantly changing. Therefore, recruits must be technically skilled, adaptive, and learning (Paul et al., 2018). The Marine Corps may face these challenges and strategies:


In emerging fields like cybersecurity, the U.S. military battles to recruit digital talent. Traditional recruits need more technological skills, which is a severe challenge. Since many new troops need more technical skills for contemporary operations, aligning army personnel with fast-changing technological surroundings is problematic. The military pays more and offers more flexibility to technical talent than the private sector (Samaras et al., 2019). Competition may make it challenging for military agencies to hire and retain cybersecurity expertise. Educational differences among recruits worsen it. STEM training, increasingly vital for military job opportunities, is not accessible to everybody. To attract and retain technical talent in the face of increased demand and private sector rivalry, the military needs focused educational efforts, university partnerships, and competitive incentive schemes.


Targeted Recruitment Campaigns

The Marine Corps can conduct tailored recruitment efforts for those with technical expertise (Soeters, 2018). Outreach at tech seminars, hackathons, and other gatherings that draw people with cybersecurity expertise may fall under this category.

Partnerships with Educational Institutions

Work together with colleges and technical institutes to find and hire people who possess the necessary abilities (Zehndorfer, 2020). Forming alliances can also provide doors for educational initiatives designed with the needs of the military in mind.

Enhanced Training Programs

Provide thorough training programs for recruits in cybersecurity along with associated sectors within the Marine Corps (Baas, 2022). This can entail collaborating with professionals in the field to offer state-of-the-art instruction.

Incentives and Bonuses

Provide bonuses and financial incentives to applicants with specialised technical abilities (Paul et al., 2018). Because of this, joining the military may seem more appealing than prospects in the private sector.

Leveraging Marine Corps Talent for Cyber Readiness

The Marine Corps can strategically leverage its existing workforce to meet cyber-personnel needs by implementing targeted training programs to upskill current personnel. This approach offers several advantages. Firstly, it capitalises on the discipline, leadership, and teamwork ingrained in Marines, providing a solid foundation for success in cybersecurity (Samaras et al., 2019). Leveraging internal talent also fosters a sense of loyalty and commitment among current personnel as they see opportunities for career growth within the organisation. Furthermore, the Marine Corps can tailor training programs to align with the unique needs of its cybersecurity roles, ensuring a specialised skill set that integrates seamlessly with existing military functions. However, challenges also exist.

The disadvantages include the potential for resistance or difficulty in adapting to a new, highly technical field for individuals whose backgrounds may be primarily in traditional military roles. Motivation and retention may be influenced by the perception of equitable career advancement opportunities compared to those in other military occupational specialities or private-sector roles (Soeters, 2018). Striking the right balance in training and ensuring that cyber-focused roles are perceived as valuable and rewarding within the Marine Corps are critical factors in the success of this approach. Overall, leveraging the existing workforce presents an opportunity to build a highly skilled cyber personnel cadre but requires careful consideration of training methods, motivation factors, and retention strategies to maximise success.

Navigating Task, Goal, and Outcome Interdependence: Insights from a High-Performing Marketing Team

Marketing team

The Marketing Team has lofty ambitions to design and execute new product launch strategies, provide compelling content across platforms, and analyse market trends and customer behaviour. The main goals are to increase brand recognition by 20% in the following quarter, product sales by 15% by the close of the financial year, and customer involvement and happiness via focused marketing. Tasks and objectives are interdependent and crucial to team performance. Market trend research informs content production, and marketing campaign success is crucial to brand exposure and sales growth (Zehndorfer, 2020). The coordination of these activities and objectives generates a unified approach that supports the purpose. Team members work together and feel purposeful with shared goals. To sustain result dependency, the team must communicate often and understand how each activity contributes to the overall objectives. Achieving these goals shows marketing success and the team’s interconnected approach to duties and goals.

Negative impacts

Changes in interdependencies within the Marketing Team might cause communication or cooperation failures. If these crucial components succeed, the marketing message may be consistent across media, reducing campaign effectiveness. Communication and cooperation are essential to the team’s interdependence and success (Baas, 2022). Team members may become compartmentalised or unaware of how their contributions affect overall objectives, which may change dependency. This may hamper the holistic view needed to achieve goals, resulting in inferior results. With sufficient communication and adjustment, abrupt swings in outcome dependency may be apparent to team members. Lack of clarity may lower team effectiveness as people need help to concentrate. It emphasises the necessity for proactive communication and strategic planning to avoid adverse effects on team cohesiveness and effectiveness and the delicate balance of interdependencies.

Leadership Mastery: Analysing the Influence Strategies of a Workplace Trailblazer

Most Influential Leader Experience

I worked at a former employer, and there was a mighty boss there. This department head was a leader with a unique talent for motivating and directing the group toward common objectives. Their approachability, tactical perspective, and sincere care for the welfare of team members were all hallmarks of their leadership style (Paul et al., 2018). Under their direction, the workplace promoted teamwork, innovation, and a clear sense of mission. This leader was unique not just because of their position but also their innate capacity to relate to others on a human level, which instilled confidence and empowerment in the group.

Forms of Power and Types of Influence

Referent and expert authority were the main methods used by the influential leader I met. Their charming and affable personality gave them referent power and inspired respect and affection among the team (Samaras et al., 2019). This, in turn, fostered a desire to share the principles and vision of the leader. The leader’s extensive expertise and experience in the subject gave them expert power and established them as a reliable source of advice. The team trusted the leader, and she was able to influence the processes of decision-making thanks to her competence.

The influencer mostly used transformational influence among the many forms of influence. They encouraged and inspired team members to put the department’s overall welfare ahead of their interests (Soeters, 2018). Through developing a strong vision and a clear sense of objective, this leader inspired the team to strive for excellence and innovation. The leader also used relational influence by fostering close relationships, paying attention to issues, and lending assistance. With increased trust and cooperation as a result of this relational strategy, the team leader was able to impact the group favourably.


This study highlights the significance of skill alignment, flexibility, and strategic methods in attaining success in leadership across a range of areas. The importance of physical stamina, mental acuity, self-control, marksmanship, cooperation, and leadership in conventional military settings is best shown by the U.S. Marine Corps. Recruitment difficulties are brought on by the changing environment, particularly in domains like cybersecurity. Therefore, focused initiatives like advertising, collaborations with educational institutions, improved training courses, and rewards are required (Zehndorfer, 2020). A unique opportunity exists to use the discipline, management, and collaboration deeply entrenched in Marines by hiring from inside the Marine Corps and employing the current workforce for cybersecurity responsibilities. On the other hand, there are obstacles in the way of conquering opposition and guaranteeing fair promotions. A high-performing team’s duties, objectives, and results are interdependent, as the marketing industry stresses.

Long-term success requires efficient interaction and a common understanding of how everyone’s contributions affect overall goals (Paul et al., 2018). Failed collaboration or communication may have adverse effects, emphasising the need for strategic planning and proactive communication. The examination of a trailblazer in the workplace, in conclusion, highlights the influence tactics used by an administrator who was exceptional at inspiring and managing their group. The leader’s achievement was facilitated by referent and expert authority and transformational and relational impact. This study offers insightful information on leadership philosophies and how they promote creativity, cooperation, and a feeling of purpose. Put, strategic thinking, flexibility, and a combination of abilities are all part of exceptional leadership that cuts across boundaries. Within the military, business, and marketing sectors, a common element is the capacity to overcome obstacles, match abilities with changing needs, and motivate people toward common objectives.


Baas, W. A. (2020). Corporate Leaders’ Unique Pathways: A Narrative Research Study Exploring the Transition Journeys of Military Veterans as They Navigate Advancement into Leadership Roles. Northeastern University.

Paul, C., Clarke, C. P., Schwille, M., Hlávka, J. P., Brown, M. A., Davenport, S. S., … & Harding, J. (2018). Lessons from Others for Future US Army Operations in and Through the Information Environment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Samaras, C., Nuttall, W. J., & Bazilian, M. (2019). Energy and the military: Convergence of security, economic, and environmental decision-making. Energy strategy reviews26, 100409.

Soeters, J. (2018). Sociology and military studies: Classical and current foundations. Routledge.

Zehndorfer, E. (2020). Leadership: Performance Beyond Expectations. Routledge.

What Are the Consequences of International Cybersecurity Laws for Cybercrimes, and How Can International Law Be Changed To Address These Issues?


Since more people perform their daily activities online and via digital technology, cybercrime has grown in prominence recently. Governments worldwide are now enacting cybersecurity legislation to stop cybercrimes from happening. This research paper examines how international cyber security rules affect cybercrimes and suggests how international law might be modified to solve these challenges.

The objectives of this research

This study explores how international cyber security rules and the current judicial system affect cybercrimes. This study evaluates worldwide cyber security law to prevent crimes and identify areas for improvement (Khan et al., 2022, p. 971). This study analyzes literature and case studies to assess international cyber security rules and worldwide cybercrime. This paper will propose ways to improve international cyber security rules and fight cybercrime.

A few associations team up with the public authority to battle cybercrime. This study will utilize the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT), an expert division of the UN accused of fighting psychological oppressor assaults and other worldwide perils like cybercrime. In collaboration with public legislatures, worldwide associations, and different accomplices, the UNCCT forms and sets in motion the intent to counter psychological oppression and other transnational dangers. The UN Show on Cybercrime (UNCCT) empowers global collaboration in making network safety norms. Furthermore, it advances the use of appropriate global network protection regulations. UNCCT works on the legal structure for fighting cybercrime through its drives and organizations and cultivates worldwide coordinated efforts in handling network protection issues (Montasari, 2023). The gathering supports correspondence and participation among partners, including states, everyday society, and the confidential area, to improve worldwide digital protection.

Exploring the impacts of worldwide digital protection guidelines on cybercrime and how global regulation may be modified to address these hardships is proper, given the UNCCT’s order of “forestalling and battling transnational perils.” By assessing the UNCCT’s job in advancing worldwide collaboration in cybercrime counteraction and supporting network safety, this study can assist us with a better comprehension of the viability of global network safety regulation in fighting cybercrime on an overall level (Lubis & Handayani, 2022, 151-161).

Consequences of international cyber security laws for cyber-crimes:

International cyber security regulations aim to deter and prosecute online criminal activity. These laws specify what counts as cybercrime and set forth punishments for individuals who do so (Sharma & Kaur, 2019, n.p). Additionally, they offer a framework for international collaboration in catching and punishing cyber criminals. The possibility of cybercriminals being apprehended and punished is one of the significant effects of international cybersecurity regulations (Litvinenko, 2020, 1521-1541). These rules make it possible for law enforcement authorities to cooperate internationally in investigating and prosecuting cybercrimes. Because many cybercrimes are committed by actors based abroad, this is very significant. Cybercrimes can ruin reputations, steal sensitive data, and cost money (Argaw et al., 2020, 1-10). Global cybersecurity laws compensate victims. International cybersecurity laws have reduced cybercrimes. These guidelines help prevent cybercrime globally by deterring perpetrators, increasing the likelihood of their capture and punishment, and protecting victims.

Another advantage of these regulations is that they deter individuals who engage in illegal activities online (also known as the “chilling effect”). Certain people are deterred from engaging in criminal behavior online since there is always the possibility that they will be discovered and brought to justice for their actions. This may be of assistance in bringing the total number of cybercrimes committed down to a more reasonable level (Kagita et al., 2022, 83-98).

Three major types of cybercrimes:


Personal cybercrime begins. Computer crimes target one person. Cybercrime includes hacking email accounts, sending spam, and spying on webcams.


Property cybercrime. Cybercrime targets victims’ phones, computers, and other devices: Ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, and identity theft.


Government cybercrime follows—online crimes target federal, state, and municipal governments. Government cybercrime includes installing malicious software on government networks to steal or damage data, stealing federally unlawful government information like tax returns, and denial-of-service attacks on government websites like the IRS (Sen et al., 2022, 1931-1938).

Commonest cybercrimes

  • AI Attack

AI-powered cybercrime involves AI-using cybercriminals. These attacks could cause cyberattacks or identity theft (Kaloudi & Li, 2020, 1-34).

AI-powered malware, data poisoning, and phishing.

  • Computer hacking

Harmful software is computer vandalism. Crashing systems, stealing data, and corrupting files.

Malware and viruses cause computer crimes (Ponde, 2022, n.p).

  • Copyright Abuse

Copyright infringement is stealing or distributing copyrighted materials. File-sharing websites infringe copyright the most (Aronov, 2021, n.p). Illegal BitTorrent downloads of music and movies are copyright infringement cybercrimes.

  • Site-to-Site Script

Cross-site scripting hackers inject malware into websites (XSS). This code steals website users’ credentials. British Airlines’ 2018 data breach exposed 380,000 bookings and thousands of customers’ data (Williams et al., 2022, n.p).

  • Internet abuse

Cyber harassment is another common cybercrime. Technology is used to stress someone out intentionally. Sending harassing sexual or violent texts or emails can (Mohsin, 2021, n.p). Threatening texts and leaking photos are cyber harassment. Cyberbullying is common.

  • Cyber/Typosquatting

Cybersquatting is impersonating someone else on a similar website or domain name. Stealing a name or business name to get passwords and usernames is common.

  • Cyberstalking

Cyberstalking involves unwanted contact or online stalking.

  • Cyberterrorism

Cyberterrorism uses the internet to commit violent and destructive acts that spread fear and panic. Cyberterrorism involves hacking government databases to cause power outages (Jacobsen, 2022, 62-72).

  • Service Interruption (DoS)

DoS cyberattacks disable websites and other online services. Repetitive website requests slow or crash it. A person or botnet bombards a website in a denial-of-service cyberattack (Badotra & Sundas, 2021, 1-19).

  • Trafficking and child pornography increased.

Human trafficking and hacking child pornography to recruit victims are illegal. A 29-year-old Mexican national was sentenced to 25 years in West Palm Beach federal court for child sexual exploitation.

  • Drive-by attacks

Hackers launch drive-by cyberattacks without the victim’s knowledge after gaining access to a computer system or website.

  • Attacks Seen

Cyberattack eavesdropping involves online monitoring. Cyberattacks use keyloggers and other spyware to eavesdrop on online conversations.

  • Internal Threats

Insider cyberattacks can damage or steal a company’s computer system and other resources.

  • Malware

Malware harms users. Adware, spyware, and worms are malware. Unlike theft or fraud, malware damages computer systems and data (Katagiri, 2021, n.p).

  • Online libel

Online libel or slander involves defaming someone. Alfalo sued Weiner for Florida defamation per se and intentional emotional distress (Solo, 2019, 75-77). Falsely slandering someone on social media causes emotional distress.

Limitations of international cyber security laws in addressing cyber-crimes:

There are advantages to having international cyber security regulations, yet there may likewise be downsides (Halder & Jaishankar, 2019, n.p). One drawback is the need for more proficient authorization instruments. A few nations need to improve on labor supply and skills to explore and indict instances of cybercrime appropriately. It is additionally conceivable that only one out of every odd nation will cooperate to tackle the issue of cybercrime (Ali et al., 2021, 248-255).

International cyber security rules may need to be revised to keep up with the rapid advancement of technology, which is another drawback (Habibzadeh et al., 2019, n.p). As technology develops, new varieties of cybercrime appear. Keeping up with these changes might take much work for international cybersecurity laws.

Proposals for strengthening international cyber security laws:

Some recommendations to strengthen international cyber security regulations are explorable. Cybercrime investigation and punishment could benefit from improved global coordination and cooperation. Thus, nations may be required to establish multinational task forces to coordinate cyber security measures and data exchange (Taeihagh & Lim, 2019, 103-128).

Another suggestion is to make the enforcement processes stronger. This might entail giving law enforcement organizations more resources and training and toughening the penalties for cybercrime. Finally, it is critical to keep up with the rapid advancement of technology (Farahbod et al., 2022, 63-71). As they appear, international cyber security laws may need to be updated frequently to address brand-new cybercrimes.


International cyber security laws prevent and punish cybercrimes. These laws may catch and punish cybercriminals and deter cybercrime (Smith et al., 2019, 42-60). These restrictions are limited by a need for more enforcement and the inability to keep up with technological innovation. Propos, including boosting international collaboration and coordination, strengthening enforcement, and keeping up with technology, might be considered to increase international cyber security legislation.

Works Cited

Al Ali, N. A. R., Chebotareva, A. A., & Chebotarev, V. E. (2021). Cyber security in marine transport: opportunities and legal challenges. Pomorstvo35(2), 248-255.

Argaw, S. T., Troncoso-Pastoriza, J. R., Lacey, D., Florin, M. V., Calcavecchia, F., Anderson, D., … & Flahault, A. (2020). Cybersecurity of Hospitals: discussing the challenges and working towards mitigating the risks. BMC medical informatics and decision making20, 1-10.

Aronov, A. (2021). Copyright protection in the Internet age: Whether copyright can combat Peer-to-peer technology.

Badotra, S., & Sundas, A. (2021). A systematic review on the security of E-commerce systems. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering18(2), 1-19.

Farahbod, K., Shayo, C., & Varzandeh, J. (2020). Cybersecurity indices and annual cybercrime loss and economic impacts. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences32(1), 63-71.

Habibzadeh, H., Nussbaum, B. H., Anjomshoa, F., Kantarci, B., & Soyata, T. (2019). A survey on cybersecurity, data privacy, and policy issues in cyber-physical system deployments in smart cities. Sustainable Cities and Society50, 101660.

Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2019). Cyber laws for preventing cyber crimes against women in Canada. Cyber Crime, 765–776. doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-323-2.ch405

Jacobsen, J. T. (2022). Cyberterrorism. Perspectives on terrorism16(5), 62-72.

Kagita, M. K., Thilakarathne, N., Gadekallu, T. R., Maddikunta, P. K. R., & Singh, S. (2022). A review on cyber crimes on the internet of things. Deep Learning for Security and Privacy Preservation in IoT, 83-98.

Kaloudi, N., & Li, J. (2020). The ai-based cyber threat landscape: A survey. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)53(1), 1-34.

Katagiri, N. (2021). Why international law and norms do little in preventing non-state cyber attacks—Journal of cybersecurity7(1), tyab009.

Khan, S., Saleh, T., Dorasamy, M., Khan, N., Leng, O. T. S., & Vergara, R. G. (2022). A systematic literature review on cybercrime legislation. F1000Research11(971), 971.

Litvinenko, V. S. (2020). The digital economy is a factor in the technological development of the mineral sector. Natural Resources Research29(3), 1521-1541.

Lubis, M., & Handayani, D. O. D. (2022). The relationship of personal data protection towards internet addiction: Cyber crimes, pornography, and reduced physical activity. Procedia Computer Science197, 151-161.

Mohsin, K. (2021). The Internet and its Opportunities for Cybercrime–Interpersonal Cybercrime. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2021. URL: https://doi. Org/10.2139/ssrn. 3815973 (date of request: 28.02. 2022).

Montasari, R. (2023). Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence in National Security: Applications and Issues. In Countering Cyberterrorism: The Confluence of Artificial Intelligence, Cyber Forensics and Digital Policing in US and UK National Cybersecurity (pp. 27-56). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Ponde, S. (2022). Cyber Security.

Sen, A., Jena, G., Jena, S., & Devabalan, P. (2022). A Case Study on Defending against Cyber Crimes. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 1931-1938.

Sharma, M., & Kaur, S. (2019). Cyber crimes are becoming a threat to cyber security. Academic Journal of Forensic Sciences ISSN2581, 4273.

Smith, K. T., Jones, A., Johnson, L., & Smith, L. M. (2019). Examination of cybercrime and its effects on corporate stock value. Journal of Information, Communication, and Ethics in Society17(1), 42–60.

Solo, A. M. (2019). Combating Online Defamation and Doxing in the United States. In Proceedings on the International Conference on Internet Computing (ICOMP) (pp. 75–77). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldCom).

Taeihagh, A., & Lim, H. S. M. (2019). Governing autonomous vehicles: emerging responses for safety, liability, privacy, cybersecurity, and industry risks. Transport reviews39(1), 103-128.

Williams, R. V., Huang, C., McDermott, C., Ahmed, T., Columbus, L., Moremen, K. W., … & Amster, I. J. (2022). Site-to-site cross-talk in OST-B glycosylation of hCEACAM1-IgV. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences119(43), e2202992119.

Cybersecurity for Working from Home


The development of internet technologies necessitates enhancing internet-based works to help individuals and companies in extensive data transportation. While people celebrate the benefits of technological advancements, there are risks, threats, and disadvantages that come with the advantages. The most acknowledgeable disadvantage of development in information communication technologies is the cyber security threats that evolve with the development of technologies (Ahsan et al., 2022). The development of computerization in most operations worldwide has resulted in the harmful use of computer networking to cause harm to individuals and institutions. In this study about cybersecurity for working at home, the focus is channeled to understanding cybersecurity, cyber threats, attacks, and countermeasures to cybersecurity threats.

The significance of this study is to help collect information vital to deterring cybercrimes and develop insights to further studies that would help enhance protection against cyber threats and cyber-attacks. Internet development and employment based on the internet expose individuals and organizations to threats and attacks, which may ultimately destroy reputations and cause organizational loss (Offner et al., 2020). Therefore, it is critical to understand the background factors leading to cybersecurity threats and why it affects people working from home more than conventional workers.


Internet technologies necessitate the development of applications and systems that are internet based, which help in extensive data transportation and facilitate web-based technologies. With technological advancement and changing working terms and conditions, companies and organizations are shifting from conventional jobs to remote employment. According to Offner et al. (2020), recent advancement in job platforms encourages employees to perform their tasks from home, communicate and transmit the completed work to employers through the internet. The processes involved in acquiring data, data aggregation, and delivery of high-volume data and transportation from specific sources explain big data in transportation. Despite the advancement in technologies and the ability to transport high volumes of data, a series of risks are involved in working on the internet and with the internet f things. Almudaires and Almaiah (2021) argue that working from home may expose the employees and the remote jobs to risks such as expanded attack surfaces, vulnerable networks, undesirable employee work habits, shortages of security skills, and problems with cloud-based infrastructures. Therefore, it is essential to consider creating protection policies against cyber security problems for working remotely.

Flexibility in the mobilization of technology has dramatically disintegrated the traditional work-life with several data processing concerns enhancing the current trend of remote employment. While the most common issues with remote work include lack of routine and time management, social isolation, difficulty building and maintaining organizational cultures, and distractions from home, data security issues are significant threats. Ideally, the major cybersecurity concerns experienced when working include the lack of data security skills, expanded attacks, and tracking and managing the assets in the cloud.

According to Almudaires and Almaiah (2021), working from home increases the possibilities and chances of employees using unsecured networks, for example, public Wi-Fi, unverified networks, and shared internet website log-ins. Arguably, most home networks are vulnerable to attacks due to a lack of technical expertise to secure the internet. Consequently, remote jobs, especially tasks that involve the transportation of big data and access to the internet, are exposed to spyware, malware, and virus attacks. Additionally, the internet is clouded by scams, phishing attacks, and cyberbullying. Thus, the study focuses on cybersecurity for working at home as an overall project topic and will explore policies for promoting cyber security for remote employees.

Industries, companies, organizations, and individuals are experiencing new issues and evolving cybersecurity threats, with information systems at higher risk. Ahsan et al. (2022) indicate that the frequency of cyber-attacks in the United States alone by August this year was 66% of the internet users. With the increase in e-commerce and working remotely, more people risk getting attacked and having their data breached by hackers or simply internet bullies. Thus, governments and policymakers are striving to create policies that would help reduce the incidence of cyberbullying and data breaches.

Research question

This proposal’s problem and research question are: What are the possible interventions and policies for solving cybersecurity issues for remote employees and the possible internet technology implementations in organizations to prevent networks, data, and systems from cyber-attacks?

Aims and objective of the research

With the current increase in global internet and cyber threats, technology industries are committed to reducing the threats and risks that their systems are exposed. Thus, this research is conducted with the aims of;

  1. Identify the most common and most dangerous cyber-attacks in data transportation and remotely working.
  2. To establish possible measures that governments, organizations, and companies in the internet and information technology industries can implement to achieve and maintain cyber security.
  3. To establish data processing and transportation protection policies.

Significance of the study

Companies’ data exposure to various risks dramatically influences the companies’ decision-making and negatively impacts the companies’ output. According to Singh et al. (2020), cybersecurity protections from corrupt and illegal access to private information cause financial losses, reputational harms, company degradation, erosion of brands, and lack of consumer trust. Thus, this study is essential in gathering critical and relevant information about cybersecurity for working from home and enhancing effective and accountable transportation of high-volume data using internet technology.

This study is critical to helping deter crimes on working platforms and data transportation from different sources, especially for remote employees working from home. Data protection and considerations are essential in deterring potential crimes that internet users are exposed to (Almudaires & Almaiah, 2021). Arguably, there are many cyber crimes that internet users and internet technology faces.


Cyber security threats are issues brought about by the development and advancement in internet technologies, precisely information communication technologies. While different scholars and studies have given different explanations for cyber security, Jia et al. (2019) explain cyber security as the techniques and efforts aimed at safeguarding cyberspaces. Internet developments have created threats regarding data breaches and cyber-attacks on internet users. According to Singh et al. (2020), the first reported cyber-attack case was conducted through networked computers in Estonia in 2007. Since 2007, data breaches have advanced to attacking severe institutions such as governments and companies’ top secrets. Therefore, cyber securities protocols and programs are researched, and policies are created to protect individuals and companies from cyber-attack risks.

The development of information technologies and computerization have significantly impacted the work and employment systems of many countries and organizations. By 2010, companies like Spotify, 3M, Airbnb, and Yelp had started closing their offices to embrace remote employment where employees would work from home (Jia et al., 2019). Consequently, work-from-home schemes involved more risks as more companies’ data and protectives were hacked and mishandled. Consequently, countries started creating policies to protect their data and assets. Primarily, the most common cybersecurity issues that are faced by people working from home include the following;

i. Cyber threats

According to Lai et al. (2022), every successful attack on any organization’s database and cyber assets would compromise the organization’s confidentiality, ICT systems operations, and integrity. Ideally, cyber thefts can result in exposure to intrusion in terms of propriety and economic and confidential data. Some of the most common cyber threats include;

a. Insider threats

Working from home exposes many companies and organizations to behaviors characterized by deliberately attacking organizations and their cyberspace assistance by their employees. According to Singh et al. (2020), a high level of access to a company’s database and systems prompts the users to look for loopholes and attacks on the company or organization without contacting appropriate authorities. Primarily, insider attacks aim to leak information to organizations or companies’ competitors and enemies that would later help to the companies’ disadvantage (Lai et al., 2022). Working from home typically allows individuals to have access to most company assets. It is challenging to control users and employees working remotely on what to do; thus, blackmail, revenge, and disgruntlement are common threats to organizations working from home.

b. Online and mobile banking fraud

Studies by Lai et al. (2022) indicate that most people registered with online banking and mobile money services risk exposing their money to fraudsters and can lose their money anytime if there is no robust data protection from the bank systems. An example of online and mobile banking fraud was the China National Petroleum cyber-attack in 2017. If it seemed impossible, fraudsters managed to control the corporations’ credit payment and demand ransoms for users to access their credit card operations or make payments for fuel (Manesh & Kaabouch, 2019). Other severe online and mobile banking systems affect internet technologies since the controls are complicated. People working from home are more exposed to online fraud since most suffer from working for fraudsters or intentionally giving crucial information to outsiders who, in turn, attack the organizations.

c. Social Media

The most committed cybercrime in the world relates to social media attacks and threats. While most organizations have adopted digital marketing strategies to enhance their businesses and operations, aspects of cyberbullying and threats like data leaks significantly affect companies with employees working from home (Manesh & Kaabouch, 2019). Complex online malware install buttons that are availed users for specific roles. Social media is significantly misused, especially in sharing false information, computer malware, and giving away access credentials.

ii. Cyber security and countermeasures

Countermeasures for cyber threats account for cyber security and protection policies that ensure appropriate and effective data usage. Countermeasures in cyber threats are viewed as all the actions taken to resolve the internet threats and risks, the processes, systems, devices, and technologies used to mitigate the effects of cyberattacks. The countermeasures include setting relevant standards of behavior, including encryption of shared data and restrictions on the use of social media. According to Singh et al. (2020), cyber securities are critical in deterring cyber-attacks and potential breaches of private data.


Investigating cyber security issues, data protection policies, and intervention to challenges facing people working from home, it is appropriate to address this study’s objectives and research question. Thus, the data collection method for this study would require both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research will rely on data collection through filed questionnaires, analyzing secondary sources subjected to inclusion criteria, and meeting all the required verifications and authentications for academic standards (Lai et al., 2022). The research questionnaires will contain questions about cyber security for working at home and the interventions of cybercrime challenges faced by people working remotely. For the primary data, the research targets to gather information from a sample size of 200 respondents in investigating cybersecurity for working at home and policies for working at home.

The inclusion criteria for secondary sources will include all company websites, business organizations, government databases, and only institutions using private networking systems. The criteria s based on the integrity of the sources and the validity of the references made during the study. Other secondary sources for the research include peer-reviewed articles and books that are not older than five years (Li & Liu, 2021). The project proposal shall rely on interviews and questionnaires to specific experts through the internet since the objectives would require a recommendation for establishing policies that will regulate and protect people working from home against cybercrimes and other attacks.

The exclusion criteria in data collection methods would be to any agency or business that uses public networking for their roles and conventional employees. The questionnaires and interviews will be restricted to only individuals and experts who work remotely and are affected by internet technology interference (Manesh & Kaabouch, 2019). Secondary sources not verified or peer-reviewed is excluded from the study process.

Research Design

This research design illustrates a combination of methods and techniques for identifying cybersecurity issues for working from home and giving sustainable solutions to the ever-evolving cyber-crime threats and attacks. The research design would enable the implementation of formal justifications of data collected from the respondents who are either direct victims of cyber-attacks or potential victims working from home. A logical evaluation of the research would be supported by the effective implementation of data protection policies which will account for the risk determination, identification of threats, and development of a solution to internet technology issues (Manesh & Kaabouch, 2019). The research management will ensure all the research techniques and tools are effectively used in determining the possible causes of data breaches and coming up with solutions to issues such as expanded attack surfaces, usage of vulnerable networks, and increasing data security skills.

The research design will yield both qualitative and quantitative data. Thus, the design is flexible to adjustments depending on the research objectives and problem. Upon undertaking data collection activities such as conducting surveys, website hits, and evaluation of the internet technologies’ performances, the recommendation made on the research would be flexible enough to address other issues regarding cyber securities. Interviews and questionnaires will be developed to address all the aims and objectives of the research (Li & Liu, 2021). However, all the data collected would be computed into an SPSS analysis and presentation, compared to other previous research, and used to recommend further research on cybersecurity on working from home.

Justification of choices

Government agencies and scholars have conducted several studies and research about the states of cyber security, national security, and policies to protect internet users against various attacks. However, there is limited published literature addressing the problems of cyber securities and policies regarding the regulation of remote jobs. According to Li and Liu (2021), cybercrimes are evolving and increasing with technological advancement. For instance, in 2017, the China National Petroleum Corporation suffered a cyber-attack that damaged and prevented customers from making payments online and by credit cards unless the customers paid a ransom through bitcoins. The attack on the corporation cost China and the residents unimaginably huge losses that could otherwise have been deterred (Singh et al., 2020). However, the evolution of internet technologies has much sophistication, thus posing a challenge in taking control of the situation. Relating to the China cyber-attack incident, it is essential to understand cyber security, data processing, data transportation protection, and policies regulating working from home. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to generating knowledge about cyber security for working at home and establish policies regulating remote jobs.

Several companies and organizations do not have sufficient knowledge about the threats they are exposed to when they acknowledge staff working from home and transporting critical and high-volume data through internet technology. According to Li and Liu (2021), due to a lack of sufficient knowledge on data protection and policies regulating working from home, several companies do not consider employer data security experts, thus exposing most of their information to attackers and breaches. Singh et al. (2020) argue that it is incumbent for the information gaps relating to cybersecurity and work-from-home policies to be subjected to further studies. Thus, to ensure ultimate security for all people working from home, studies must be conducted on the most effective ways to solve cybersecurity issues. Consequently, the choice of researching cybersecurity for working at home and the need to develop policies regulating remote jobs is justified in this research.

Data Collection

The study is to be conducted and compiled online. Interviews and interviewees are selected from the companies that merited the inclusion criteria, and the entire process is carried out via the internet. The target respondents were gathered from around the world, with the majority living in America. Through b internet technology, the research proposal can probe respondents from all over the world and access the data from verified secondary sources, ensuring the authenticity and validity of every data provided by the respondents (Singh et al., 2020). The questionnaires were created and shared online with strict guidelines for specific experts allowed to participate.

The research targets individual persons, government officials from different countries, especially the United States, three African countries, South Africa and Kenya, and organization officials. The research considers only the relevant information from the selected. Thus, the activities undertaken during the study shall include verification of data sources, sampling the respondents, creating the questionnaires, sharing the questions, and collecting the responses.

With a sample size of 200 experts and professionals across the world, internet technology industries, companies, and governments, the researcher undertook to validate all the pieces of information shared and responses given by the respondents. One of the essential activities undertaken by the researcher is the ethical considerations and attainment of all necessary legal requirements (Altulaihan et al., 2022). The study focused on addressing the cybersecurity issues for working at home and creating policies protecting against cyber-attacks on remote employees.

Research techniques

Conducting research focusing on policy development and internet technology issues, it is appropriate to consider applying techniques such as surveys, website hits and log files analysis, and measurement of performances.


Cyber security issues are global, and cyber threats affect nearly all organizations and governments worldwide. Thus, based on the inclusion criteria technique in selecting the data sources, the research would focus on conducting surveys on the rates and impacts of the effects of cybercrimes across the continents. The researchers must sample sources and respondents from the most affected countries and the companies that have suffered the most significant losses due to cyber crimes. Conducting a survey is a critical technique that helps sample the most effective and appropriate data for analyzing and creating the most effective policies that would act as interventions to cybercrimes (Altulaihan et al., 2022). The surveys are considered techniques during the research primarily for collecting views and experiences from different people under different terms. According to Li and Liu (2021), during the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly all countries opted to work from home. While no verified report has detailed impacts and incidences of cyber-attack during the period, it is notable that during the pandemic, internet technology was extensively used; thus, it is possible that more cyber-crimes were committed.

Website hits

Upon acquiring a legal mandate to research cyber security for working at home, the researchers would use their internet technology expertise and try to hit various websites, accessing their information and reporting on security measures implemented. Offner et al. (2020) indicate that most companies do not have more vigorous data protection techniques and minimal policies that protect internet users. For example, the 2017 China National Petroleum Corporation cyber-attack gave insight into various companies, including Sony Pictures, Saudi Aramco, and American Financial corporations, which have in history had major cyber-attacks and data breaches. Surprisingly, even most companies that have suffered the effects of cyberattacks did not have enough data protection techniques, as most databases lacked basic protections such as passwords (Offner et al., 2020). Through analysis and statistics from the website hits in the research, policymakers would then make policies protecting people working from home by preventing unauthorized access to any website and patent rights adherence.

Measurement of performance

Internet technologies’ performances can be determined by observing active operations and using the internet of things. Developing policies for working from home and offering protection to remote employees requires close internet performance monitoring. Thus, one of the essential techniques in research about cybersecurity and policies is measuring performance and the effectiveness of individual employees’ data confidentiality (Offner et al., 2020). Many data breaches and cyber-attacks correspond to frequent internet users who do not have strong network protections. Through online interviews and questionnaires about work performance, the researchers can measure individual performances and relate to data security and protection issues to recommend effective protection policies.

Research Evaluation

The research aims to gather relevant and critical information about cybersecurity and data protection policies for people working from home. Among the essential information that the research success relied on were types of cybercrimes, identification of people most affected by the cyber-attacks, identification of problems leading to data breaches, and remedies to cyber securities. While in the last five decades, there has been a constant improvement in the development of data protection Acts and policies around the world, little is documented on the basics of data protection for people working from home (Manesh & Kaabouch, 2019). Consequently, internet technologies have exposed many companies to cybercrime threats and risks resulting in financial losses.

The success of this research can be measured by making observations on the improvement in data protection and the development of policies that protect companies’ data from internal and external data breaches. The impacts of the research can be measured in terms of both long-term impacts and short influence of the research on internet users (Yaacoub et al., 2021). However, to measure the success of this research, the respondent companies and individuals are assessed to determine their understanding of the risks involved in cyber crimes. Enabling employees to develop an understanding of basic internet employment policies, identifying cybersecurity risks, and taking immediate steps to protect their data from cyber-attacks are the short-term measurement of success for the researcher. According to Yaacoub et al. (2021), a thriving research evaluation on cybersecurity and data protection policies for people working at home would consider a comprehensive analysis of cybersecurity threats, identification of possible problems, and identifying assets at risk. Therefore, upon detailing the risk determination techniques, prioritizing, and documentation of the risks solution, the research shall have answered all the research questions and achieved the aims and objectives. Consequently, creating an avenue for policies regulating remote jobs to maintain work ethics indicates the study’s success.


Working from home requires optimum cybersecurity and implementing policies protecting organizations, individuals, governments, and institutions from cyber-attacks. Even though cyber security threats are constantly evolving with the evolution of information technologies, it is essential for people working remotely and organizations whose employees work from home to consider adhering to cyber decency, honesty, and integrity. Working from home exposes people and organizational systems to expanded attack surfaces, vulnerable networks, clouded infrastructures, and undesirable work habits, from understanding cybersecurity threats, cyber-attacks, and cybercrimes. These values affect the productivity of the companies and cause a rapid loss of trust. Therefore, an intervention to reduce cyber security threats includes the identification of the most common attacks and the creation and implementation of data and asset protection policies to cover vulnerable operations and networks.

The research outlined the significance of cybersecurity and provided valuable information about cyber-attacks background and countermeasures for controlling cybercrimes. While some of the most dangerous causes of cyber threats and attacks are the inappropriate use of social media, many people, including remote workers, do not understand the implications of sharing credentials on social media and the weight of sharing information wrongly. Thus, through techniques such as surveys, web hits, and internet performance measures, the research can critically analyze the causes and remedies for cybersecurity threats within different platforms. Arguably, people working remotely require more data protection and adherence to policies safeguarding the wrongful access and usage of data.


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Altulaihan, E., Almaiah, M. A., & Aljughaiman, A. (2022). Cybersecurity Threats, Countermeasures and Mitigation Techniques on the IoT: Future Research Directions. Electronics11(20), 3330. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11203330

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Cybersecurity in Workplace

Organizations must ensure that their network and sensitive data are secure in our internet-connected world. This will promote cybersecurity in respective workplaces. Notably, human errors are one of the major weaknesses that cyberattack criminals exploit. Thus, it is the role of every person in the workplace to ensure the security of their information (Google Help, 2016). There are various ways through which employees or members of an organization can promote cybersecurity in their workplaces. Companies should increase cybersecurity awareness among their employees, which would benefit the organization and workers. Here are several benefits of cybersecurity awareness in an organization and different ways to achieve it.

Increasingly promoting cybersecurity awareness in an organization protect the company from external cyber threats. External cyber threats are the major aspects affecting the cybersecurity of most companies. In this respect, companies must ensure that all employees know how to protect organizational information and personal data from external cyberattacks. Companies can do this by teaching employees different ways of protecting and securing personal information and network connections. Some of the most effective habits that a company may teach its workers include how to create strong passwords, the significance of installing updated antivirus software on their devices, keeping sensitive login credentials secure, and avoiding opening email attachments from an unknown sender (Oxen Technology, 2018). Awareness of these cybersecurity measures will help protect the organization and its employees from external attacks.

Consistently promoting cybersecurity awareness in an organization secures it from internal cyber threats. Notably, not all security threats come from outside the organization. People within the organization are a threat to the organization’s security too. They often threaten organizational security due to negligence, accidents, or possession of malicious behaviors. How employees can pose a security threat to an organization’s security is a question that intrigues many people. As a result, it is the role of an organization to educate its employees on the ways that they can pose security risks. This is part of cybersecurity awareness. Precisely, any person with network permission can unintentionally compromise or delete organizational data, which is an accidental behavior that can pose a great risk (Oxen Technology, 2018). Employees can also violate critical security policies exposing the organization to a security threat. This also refers to negligence even though a worker may have the best intentions when violating the policy. The last way that an employee can pose a risk to an organization is by cooperating with malicious insiders, which makes them do something to harm the organization.

In addition, promoting cybersecurity awareness equips workers with the necessary skills to safeguard private information with physical security and cautious behaviors. Noteworthy, strong security is not only always about the cyber domain, but it also involves physical security and behavior control (Oxen Technology, 2018). Companies must educate their employees on ways to enhance physical data security in workplaces and behaviors cautiousness in this respect. There are various ways that a company may use to achieve physical security and behavior caution awareness among their workers. For instance, they may provide training on non-technical security tips, such as never leaving their devices with strangers, browsing in private spaces, using dim lights when using computers in strange places, and never discussing sensitive information in public (Oxen Technology, 2018). When transferring data, the company must ensure its employees know how to verify receipts, data, and transfer methods to ensure the security of the information shared. Overall, promoting cyber security awareness among employees is one of the most efficient ways of ensuring the safety of organizational information and personal data. Everyone should be aware of their duties to promote cybersecurity in the workplace, which will help safeguard them and the organization from internal and external threats.


Google Help. (2016, September 14). How to Avoid Social Engineering Attacks [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEtvwzN_xJk

Oxen Technology. (2018, June 11). Basic Cybersecurity Tips for The Workplace. OXEN Technology. https://oxen.tech/blog/basic-cybersecurity-tips-workplace/

Global Security in Cybersecurity

Technological advancement has emerged as an indispensable driver of efficiency and financial success for businesses and government corporations worldwide. However, the desire for more significant I.T. investments has also given rise to cybersecurity Vulnerabilities. Several corporations are rapidly trying to upgrade their systems and network systems, insulate their crucial properties, and prevent significant data leaks due to the increasing prevalence and advanced threats. This paper explores the cybersecurity scenario and offers solutions that could be useful in avoiding major cybercrimes and espionage.

The Russian government has long conducted a series of cyber-attacks targeted at the U.S. digital infrastructure, aiming to steal classified information or even sabotage operations. In 2017, the Russian intelligence operatives infiltrated Ukrainian network infrastructure with the virus identified as NotPetya. A tiny U.S. (Blank,2017). medical center lost access to all Windows systems in the collection as the virus spread, and many other hospitals depending on the system were left with operational difficulties. These attacks have escalated with the Russian invasion of Ukraine, hence a need for a strategic end-state for the scenario, which is currently a threat to U.S. national security.

From the scenario analysis, the Russian Espionage agents are targeting major American industries. The strategic production, identification, and assessment of natural resources like energy materials have been targeted in the past to steal information that could help Russia determine the U.S. economic strengths and vulnerabilities. The intelligence spies have also targeted the military capability and counterintelligence departments. Russian military intelligence agents have been known to conduct cyber espionage mainly. This espionage is undertaken through various techniques such as social engineering, malware distribution, and the APT, among other ways. Historical cyber espionage, referred to as the GhostNet, was conducted at the University of Toronto, which compromised sensitive information linked to the government(Broadhurst et al.,.2013). The malicious made the information easy to access and monitor.

Implementation of mandatory BringYourOwn Device (BYOD) policy in Government affiliated institutions

Implement a law that directs employees within a potential target institution to bring their own devices to the workplace. Although the policy may seem inexpensive and straightforward to execute, it will be the most effective way of reducing intentional or unintentional data leakage risks. It shall give protocols on the software installation and maintainance, as well as a system that shall control the Universal Serial Bus devices(SCHMIDLE jr et,.2017). The FBI and other security agencies tasked with fighting cybersecurity and espionage threats have always focused on tracking down the illegal Russian agents assigned espionage and disrupting their actions before sending the information. Although the strategy has been successful in frustrating the efforts of these agents, the method is not very effective since most of these illegals may still be operating in the country and may have access to influential organizations. Several Russian spies used falsified credentials to imitate the identities of legitimate citizens who had been enrolled in government professions and enlisted in the U.S. institutions of higher learning universities even further to infiltrate government institutions. During the 1990s, two of the individuals lived in New Jersey until they purchased a house near Montclair, according to FBI data(Riehle,2021). They were identified as Richard and Cynthia Murphy. Journalists Vicky Peláez and Mikhail Vasenkov, who lived in New York, and went by the nickname Juan Lazaro, are another pair mentioned in the records(Riehle,2021). According to court documents, spouses were established in Russia to cohabitate inside the nation where they would work. Whenever foreign adversaries penetrate the network, they prioritize accessing critical databases by securing higher privileges. Such access rights are primarily derived by using fake identities or taking advantage of network administration procedures’ weaknesses. Strong cybersecurity management is crucial for corporations since they run the most significant risk of peripheral manipulation when giving workers unrestricted access to essential information and records. Adopting the principle of low privilege essentially restricts individuals’ access privileges to a minimum level, hence an effective measure to counter-espionage from agents that are unnoticed by the government agents. By requiring users to modify ther login credentials frequently, utilize authentication factors, and document any questionable behavior, I.T. managers can take a systematic method of credential administration.

Investment in the Vulnerability Assessment of Key corporations’Network

The United States Government should invest in security measures that involve vulnerability assessment of networks to reduce the vulnerability of the sensor networks. For several years, United States security experts have focused on the outdated response-driven approaches that alwasy emphasized the detection of an attack and recovery of data. Surveying the contemporary cyber attack landscape is essential because the tactics used by the Russian infiltrators keep evolving rapidly(SCHMIDLE jr et al.,.2017). Before implementing new security measures, there should be a clear understanding of the company’s attack landscape. All IoT indicators, workstations, and any gadget connected to the internet within the production line equipment must all be quantified as part of this initiative. As unencrypted devices are quick targets for these hackers, the next phase after mapping out the infrastructure is to ensure that the devices are operating on the most recent firmware and safety upgrades.


Developing mandatory policies to guide the handling of data is essential in preventing the cyber attack on digital infrastructure, especially in the U.S. And considering additional data breaches are constantly emerging, such companies must frequently evaluate risk. The united state’s manufacturers should be given a legal mandate to create an information base for all of the devices that can be connected to the internet and develop a program of firewall status and antivirus protocol checkups. The assessment would be essential in identifying potential threats and categorizing each hazard based on its threat to national security.


Blank, S. (2017). Cyberwar and information war a la Russe. Understanding cyber conflict: Fourteen analogies, 1-18.

Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., & Bouhours, B. (2013). Organizations and cybercrime. Available at SSRN 2345525.

Riehle, K. P. (2021). The ghosts of Russian intelligence: the challenges and evolution of Russia’s illegals program. Intelligence and National Security36(6), 918-924.

SCHMIDLE Jr, R. E., Sulmeyer, M., & Buchanan, B. (2017). Nonlethal weapons and cyber capabilities. Understanding Cyber Conflict: 14 Analogies, 31-44.