Specialisation: Social Media Impact

The Impact of Social Media Through Hotel Advertising on Tourism: A Qualitative Analysis of Hotel Selection

Introduction

Social networking has transformed the hospitality industry, affecting hotel marketing and tourist decisions. Social media marketing has changed hotel-target audience relationships as the hospitality industry evolves. This study analyzes how social media, particularly hotel advertising, affects tourism hotel choices. Tourism relies more on internet platforms to reach passengers in the digital age. Hotels may market, inform, and interact with clients on social media. This tendency influences guests’ choices beyond marketing. Social media affects impressions and choices as people traverse the hospitality industry’s possibilities (Liu et al., 2020). Online platforms allow customers to make informed decisions based on peer evaluations, ratings, and social network images. Hotels use social media to brand themselves and reach a worldwide audience. This project examines social media’s complicated effects on travelers’ hotel selections. This link is crucial for hospitality and academia. Studying social media and hotel advertising in tourism is worthwhile. By recognizing this relationship, academics can improve theory and practice (Chu et al., 2020). This study may uncover patterns, trends, and mechanisms linking social media, hotel advertising, and tourist preferences. As we explore, we see that travel is now digital. This research proposal seeks to reconcile social media’s disruption of the hospitality industry with our awareness of passengers’ multiple choices. This project reviews the literature, formulates a specific research topic, and describes the methods to illuminate the dynamic and symbiotic link between social media, hotel advertising, and tourist decision-making.

Research Question / Aims and Objectives

The primary research question guiding this study is: What is the role of social media regarding hotel advertising, which affects tourists’ decisions in choosing a hotel? The study examines social media’s influence over hotel choice to identify more intricate details regarding how these online outlets shape perceptions and impact decision-making among local and overseas tourists (Liu et al., 2020). The final objective is to comprehensively view social media’s performance as an intricate mosaic in the current tourism system.

To attain this overall goal, the study defines specific objectives. First, it determines how well social media affects perceptions of specific hotels. It includes a detailed examination of the impact that visuals, reviews, and interactive communication have on developing perceptions that potential tourists form about different hotels. Second, the research seeks to reveal complex systems of multifaceted social, cultural, economic, and personal determinants that influence tourists in their hotel selection (Liu et al., 2020). Finally, this study aims to shed light on the specific contribution of online advertising to the tourist decision-making process, thereby illuminating an understanding of the mechanisms through which social media influences individual behavior within the dynamic hospitality market. With these goals, the study aims to advance a comprehensive picture of how social media and hotel advertising change along with tourists’ decision-making processes.

Literature Review

Gupta (2019) analyzes how social media affects hotel visitors’ evaluations. This qualitative research includes 32 face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Indian social media users. The study found that social media affects information search and booking. Gupta stresses that social media’s advantages in hotel selection outweigh its negatives. The findings suggest that social media helps consumers research hotel products and services, evaluate possibilities, and make decisions (Gupta, 2019). Gupta has also studied social media’s situational effects on content source and trust. These circumstances complicate consumers’ decisions. To improve consumer experiences and hotel preferences on social media, hotel stakeholders must grasp these complex traits.

Liu et al.’s (2020) study explains how social media affects travel decisions. According to qualitative interviews with 21 recent travelers, social media is a Need Generator, Supporter, guide, and Approver in decision-making. Social media encourages people to explore certain travel elements. Travelers can get information and reinforce their choices on social media (Liu et al., 2020). Social media helps tourists choose destinations, transportation, lodging, restaurants, attractions, shopping, and leisure. Finally, social media verifies tourists’ choices as an Approver, strengthening their confidence. This comprehensive categorization shows how social media influences tourists’ decisions, helping hotel marketing. Understanding these roles lets marketers strategically tailor social media content and interaction to visitors’ requirements, preferences, and decision-making phases across trip components.

Chu et al.’s (2020) review explains hospitality, tourism, and travel HTT social media advertising. The study evaluates the literature on consumer, organizational, and social media’s overall effects. The review shows HTT users’ social media use. It examines how clients research, share, and book travel and hospitality on digital sites. Social media strategies must consider consumers’ perspectives to reach and engage their target audience (Chu et al., 2020). The study evaluates HTT companies’ social media marketing and promotion. Hotels, travel companies, and others employ these strategies to increase brand exposure, client engagement, and revenue. The analysis concludes with social media’s broader impact on HTT. It examines how social media affects consumer behavior, industry trends, hospitality, and tourism. Chu et al.’s research helps researchers and industry professionals understand social media’s complex relationship with hospitality, tourism, and travel.

Tanford et al. (2020) study social media, consumer perceptions, and sustainable hotel decisions. The study analyzes how hotels attract eco-conscious consumers with cause-related CRM. The study examines how social media cues affect CRM responses in a simulated hotel-booking situation using an online survey and different priming and framing. Instagram’s positive or negative environmental content influences impressions (Tanford et al., 2020). Emotional priming and CRM framing that promotes sustainability boost the hotel’s image. SEM reveals that pleasant emotional priming and CRM advertising boost hotel image and booking intentions. The study also reveals that pro-environmental views improve the hotel’s image, booking intention, willingness to pay extra, and word-of-mouth. The study found that social media primes customers and frames cause-related marketing to promote sustainable hotel choices, giving hotel owners practical information to create effective environmental marketing strategies.

Tham, Mair, and Croy (2020) focus on contextual factors in social media’s impact on visitor destination choices. The study acknowledges past inconsistent findings on social media’s influence on vacation selections and seeks to determine when it is highest. The study highlights context, indicating that social media affects travelers’ decisions differently. The study finds crucial contextual elements that strongly impact social media influence (Tham et al., 2020). First, social media involvement is high, suggesting social media shapes tourists’ preferences. Second, the study reveals that place novelty or familiarity affects social media’s tourist pull. Visit planning difficulty is also a contextual element, suggesting that social media influence is increased by it. These contextual insights explain destination decisions and offer hotel selection techniques, underlining hotel marketers’ need to adapt to travelers’ contexts.

Abuhashesh et al. (2019) show how Facebook affects Jordanian hotel choices. A random sample of 610 Jordanian hotel sector social media users was used to explore how Facebook affects consumer preferences. The analysis uses quantitative methods like structural equation modeling least squares (Abuhashesh et al., 2019). The study found that Facebook’s digital information exposure strongly influences customers’ decisions. Statistics reveal that customers increasingly book hotels differently, demonstrating the platform’s dominance. The study shows that Facebook exposure influences people’s beliefs and decisions as they learn more. It highlights digital consumer behavior and the importance of a solid social media presence, especially on Facebook, for hotels seeking exposure and consumers.

Kapoor et al. (2022) explored how travel SMIs promote eco-friendly hotels. According to research, argument quality and sponsorship status affect customers’ perceptions of a hotel’s sustainability commitment and likelihood to stay. Kapoor et al. emphasize eco-friendly hotels’ social media influencer strategies. The study suggests that eco-friendly hotels sponsoring SMIs adopt an attribute-value statement that provides objective information about their sustainability efforts rather than a recommendation (Kapoor et al., 2022). This strategy improves tourists’ perceptions of the hotel’s sustainability by presenting detailed eco-friendly actions. The research also emphasizes social media influencers’ content creation in the evolving digital marketing landscape. Eco-friendly hotels can utilize SMIs to favorably affect potential guests’ sustainability attitudes and intentions to stay in eco-friendly accommodations by going beyond endorsement. Kapoor et al.’s research illuminates digital communication methods that connect eco-friendly hotels and eco-conscious tourists.

Facebook and Twitter influence travelers’ destination choices, according to Paul et al. (2019). According to the survey, social media lets travelers share photos, videos, and experiences, creating a virtual destination exploration space. Tourism is heavily influenced by word-of-mouth and social media (Paul et al., 2019). First, destination social media information prioritizes platform content. Information, images, and travel experiences shape destination perceptions. This tool helps tourists rate destinations. The second aspect, social media word-of-mouth, emphasizes communal decision-making. Social media reviews, recommendations, and debates influence tourists by sharing experiences. Positive stories and testimonials impact travelers’ destination choices. Paul et al. found that social media’s curated information and knowledge impact tourists’ destination choices.

Gamage et al.’s (2022) study on Chinese WeChat hotel choices illuminates their motivations and incentives. The Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT) determines why Chinese millennial visitors book accommodations on WeChat. The study indicated that social, process, and content gratifications drive WeChat hotel selections. Social, process and content gratifications include social involvement and connectivity, WeChat’s ease and efficiency for decision-making, and its information and entertainment value. Chinese hotels must comprehend these gratifications to attract customers (Gamage et al., 2022). Hotels may promote on WeChat to develop community and connection with potential visitors by understanding its social character. WeChat can make hotel selections more enticing by demonstrating efficiency and use. Gamage et al. found that hotels must market to Chinese passengers who use WeChat to book.

Ahani et al. (2019) show how machine learning can separate spa hotel markets and predict travel choices using TripAdvisor reviews. The researchers recognize the limitations of massive social data sets and the need for innovative insights. Instead of market segmentation, Ahani et al. employ machine learning to examine several dimensions and features of online review data (Ahani et al., 2019). According to the study, machine learning can find patterns and trends in passengers’ ratings and textual assessments, helping comprehend customer preferences. The researchers simplified internet review data using powerful analytical approaches to segment the spa hotel market and estimate travel choices. This contribution helps hotels adapt their marketing to more accurate online reviews. Ahani et al.’s research reveals how data analytics might improve spa hotel customer preferences as social media continues to affect consumers.

Research Methodology and Design

The study’s course, data collection, and findings depend on the approach. A qualitative study is necessary because understanding how social media through hotel advertising affects tourism is complicated. Qualitative methods may study hotel social media managers’ complex perspectives and experiences; hence, this was chosen (Byrd, 2020). Qualitative interviews reveal travelers’ complex assessments. Qualitative findings are interpreted and contextualized utilizing consumer behavior and digital marketing theories. Careful data collection, mainly through semi-structured interviews and judicious sampling, ensures a diverse and representative participant pool.

Choice of Methodology

This qualitative study explores hotel social media managers’ complex and subjective experiences. Qualitative research reveals the complex link between social media, hotel promotion, and tourist choices. Qualitative research, mainly interviews, thoroughly explains social media managers’ perspectives. Researchers can learn about these experts’ motives, challenges, and procedures through open-ended questions and in-depth exchanges. Understanding the various aspects that affect travelers’ hotel choices requires this strategy. Qualitative research can adapt to new ideas and findings (Hennink et al., 2020). This flexibility lets the study respond to the subject’s complexities and naturally examine how social media hotel advertising affects tourism. Thus, the qualitative technique reflects the exploratory nature of the research, exploring hidden elements essential to comprehending the phenomenon.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework evaluates and analyzes complicated social media, digital marketing, and tourist dynamics. This study draws from consumer behavior, digital marketing, and hospitality social media literature. The theoretical framework reveals passengers’ psychological processes and hotel selection decisions using consumer behavior theories (Kapoor et al., 2022). The study will evaluate how social media affects customer decision-making, from problem recognition to post-purchase review. Established consumer behavior theories are used to explore the complicated interactions between internet advertising, social media engagement, and tourist hotel choices.

Online platforms have changed marketing; the theoretical framework includes digital marketing literature. Digital marketing theories will be used to assess brand perception and consumer engagement from social media hotel promotions. Content, influencer, and user-generated content will be examined to see how social media affects travelers’ decisions. The theoretical framework covers hospitality’s shifting business and social media challenges. Online reviews, visual content, and virtual brand identification will be examined in hospitality internet advertising literature (Kapoor et al., 2022). Harmonizing with these vital theoretical underpinnings, the research aspires to contribute to social media, tourist, and hospitality marketing discourse.

Social media’s complex impact on tourism is examined using the theoretical framework. Consumer behavior, digital marketing, and hospitality literature are used to study how social media affects hotel selection (Kapoor et al., 2022). This theoretical perspective contributes to scholarly discussions regarding internet platforms and tourism’s symbiosis.

Data Collection Methods

The research uses qualitative interviews with hotel social media managers. This method directly accesses hotel social media strategists’ own experiences and insights. Multiple parties are involved in the study to understand how social media, hotel promotion, and passengers’ decisions interact. Semi-structured interviews combine prepared questions with unplanned topics (Whitehead & Whitehead, 2020). This method allows individuals to express their thoughts while conducting systematic research. In-depth semi-structured conversations boost subject comprehension. Social media managers are encouraged to present their experiences, difficulties, and views on how social media influences tourist hotel choices. For a diverse and focused participant pool, purposive and snowball sampling will be used with qualitative interviews. Purposive sampling chose hotel advertising-savvy, social media managers. This targeted approach improves data relevance and depth by focusing on process participants.

Snowball sampling expands the study’s reach through participants’ networks. This strategy allows for the addition of unidentified social media managers with unique and essential information. This combined sample method attempts to create a thorough and nuanced dataset of social media managers’ hotel and situational perspectives. Therefore, semi-structured qualitative interviews, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling are thorough and purposeful data collection methods (Whitehead & Whitehead, 2020). This methodological design allows the research to dig into social media managers’ expertise and experiences, revealing how hotel social media advertising affects tourism.

Sampling Considerations

Participant selection affects study quality and breadth. Studying how social media through hotel advertising affects tourism requires careful selection to ensure a diverse range of viewpoints. Improving the findings’ validity and applicability across hospitality scenarios requires the following variables. Participants will include social media managers from hotels of diverse sizes, locations, and target audiences to discover how social media affects hotel advertising (Cash et al., 2022). Various hotel operational and marketing approaches are considered in this plan. The research encompasses boutique hotels, large chains, metropolitan areas, and resorts to acquire nuanced insights that vary by context.

Geographic Diversity: The sample method contacts hotel social media managers in multiple areas to account for the location’s impact on marketing and consumer behavior. Understanding regional disparities in hotel advertising social media use and performance requires geographic variety (Cash et al., 2022). Consideration of multiple locations helps the study identify regional patterns and distinctions in local and foreign tourist preferences. Our sample will vary by hotel features and location to assess social media managers’ demographics—experience, gender, and age shape perspectives, approaches, and insights. The study uses diverse demographic characteristics to reduce homogenous sample biases. Data is enriched, and social media managers who plan and implement hotel advertising campaigns are represented fairly (Cash et al., 2022). Minimizing Potential Biases: The research selects varied people with different attributes and experiences to reduce biases. This care makes the findings transferable to various hospitality scenarios.

Ethical Considerations

Ethics guides any research. Ethics are essential while interviewing social media managers for the proposed study on how hotel advertising on social media affects tourism. Informed permission, confidentiality, participant influence, ethical practices, needed approvals, and study harm mitigation are covered in this section.

The ethical principle of informed consent promotes transparency and autonomy in study participation. The proposed research requires informed consent for social media manager interviews. Researchers will explain the study’s purpose and outcomes to participants. Social media managers will learn about the study’s goals, interview approach, and risks and benefits (Pietilä et al., 2020). Informed consent emphasizes voluntariness to guarantee study participants’ consent without compulsion. Ask inquiries and clarify before consenting. The researcher will also emphasize that volunteers can exit the study without consequence. Respecting social media managers’ sovereignty and right to make informed research judgments, the goal is to collaborate openly.

Research ethics need confidentiality, especially when participants reveal sensitive information during interviews. Managers may discuss company strategy, issues, or secret information on social media. Interviewers will ensure participants’ confidentiality and identity preservation. To maintain confidentiality, the researcher will anonymize participants’ identities in the final report (Pietilä et al., 2020). Unauthorized access to identification and data will be prevented. Social media administrators will know their responses are untraceable, encouraging trust and openness.

The research may raise questions and discussions influencing social media managers and their organizations. Self-awareness and company policies are examples. The researcher must anticipate and mitigate participant harm for ethical reasons. With informed consent, the researcher will discuss the study’s emotional, professional, and organizational impacts (Pietilä et al., 2020). Participants will be encouraged to express concerns or discomfort during or after interviews. This researcher will quickly and responsibly address these concerns to prioritize social media managers’ well-being throughout the research process.

The researcher follows ethical guidelines to ensure the study has ethical approval. Before initiating research, acquire ethical review board or committee approval. The researcher will follow institutional and professional regulations to conduct an ethical and responsible study (Hasan et al., 2021). Limited participant damage is a priority in ethical research. Social media managers will be interviewed by the researcher with precautions. It involves counseling upset interviewers. The researcher will carefully consider inquiry time and topic to reduce discomfort.

For research integrity, transparency is essential, including participant rights and ethics. The researcher will explain the study’s purpose, methods, and potential impact on social media managers. Participants’ autonomy, privacy, and dignity must be respected during the study. Research community ethics apply beyond the researcher. The researcher will discuss ethics with mentors, coworkers, and ethical review boards. Changes to the ethical strategy must be disclosed to sustain research ethics (Hasan et al., 2021). The suggested research on social media and hotel promotion and tourism must address ethical considerations. The researcher addresses informed consent, confidentiality, potential influence on participants, ethical practices, essential approvals, and harm mitigation to perform an ethical study that respects social media managers’ rights and well-being. Openness and ethics improve research legitimacy and validity, ensuring ethical knowledge quest.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this well-structured study proposal seeks to illuminate the complex relationship between social media, hotel promotion, and tourism. The study extensively analyzes the literature and builds on key concepts and insights from previous research to provide a robust theoretical framework. The literature review introduces the findings and explains social media’s complex impact on hotel choices. A specified research topic and objectives assist the study in yielding significant results. The study explores how social media influences travelers’ lodging decisions, particularly hotel advertising. The objectives focus on social media’s impact on perceptions, hotel selection criteria, and online advertising’s role in decision-making. For nuanced insights and authentic experiences, qualitative research includes in-depth interviews with hotel social media managers. Purposive and snowball sampling enrich data with a broad, representative sample. This study examines how social media affects tourism from the perspective of creators and implementers. Research ethics promote respect and responsibility. The study emphasizes informed consent, confidentiality, and participant effect. Ethics and approvals demonstrate the researcher’s dedication to participant rights and well-being. This research could aid academia and hospitality. The findings should show how social media, hotel promotion, and tourists’ decisions are changing. The study aims to inform industry efforts to increase social media’s influence on travelers’ hotel choices and boost tourism.

References

Abuhashesh, M., Al-Khasawneh, M., Al-Dmour, R., & Masa’Deh, R. (2019). The impact of Facebook on Jordanian consumers’ decision process in hotel selection. IBIMA Business Review, 928418.

Kapoor, P. S., Balaji, M. S., Jiang, Y., & Jebarajakirthy, C. (2022). Effectiveness of travel social media influencers: A case of eco-friendly hotels. Journal of travel research, 61(5), 1138-1155.

Paul, H. S., Roy, D., & Mia, R. (2019). Influence of Social Media on Tourists’ Destination Selection Decision. Sch. Bull, 5(11), 658-664.

Gamage, T. C., Tajeddini, K., & Tajeddini, O. (2022). Why Chinese travelers use WeChat to make hotel decisions: A uses and gratifications theory perspective. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 32(2), 285-312.

Ahani, A., Nilashi, M., Ibrahim, O., Sanzogni, L., & Weaven, S. (2019). Market segmentation and travel choice prediction in Spa hotels through TripAdvisor’s online reviews. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 80, 52-77.

Gupta, V. (2019). The influencing role of social media in the consumer’s hotel decision-making process. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 11(4), 378-391.

Liu, X., Mehraliyev, F., Liu, C., & Schuckert, M. (2020). The roles of social media in tourists’ choices of travel components. Tourist studies, 20(1), 27-48.

Chu, S. C., Deng, T., & Cheng, H. (2020). The role of social media advertising in hospitality, tourism, and travel: a literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(11), 3419-3438.

Tanford, S., Kim, M., & Kim, E. J. (2020). Priming social media and framing cause-related marketing to promote sustainable hotel choices. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(11), 1762-1781.

Tham, A., Mair, J., & Croy, G. (2020). Social media influence on tourists’ destination choice: Importance of context. Tourism Recreation Research, 45(2), 161-175.

Pietilä, A. M., Nurmi, S. M., Halkoaho, A., & Kyngäs, H. (2020). Qualitative research: Ethical considerations. The application of content analysis in nursing science research, 49-69.

Hasan, N., Rana, R. U., Chowdhury, S., Dola, A. J., & Rony, M. K. K. (2021). Ethical considerations in research. Journal of Nursing Research, Patient Safety and Practise (JNRPSP) 2799-1210, 1(01), 1-4.

Whitehead, D., & Whitehead, L. (2020). Data collection and sampling in qualitative research. Nursing and Midwifery Research Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. 6th Edition. Sydney: Elsevier, 118-135.

Cash, P., Isaksson, O., Maier, A., & Summers, J. (2022). Sampling in design research: Eight key considerations. Design studies, 78, 101077.

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Sage.

Byrd, R. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Virtual Class, Memphis. Recuperado em, 17.

The Impact of Social Media on Identity Formation in the Digital Age

Introduction

The consuming landscape has changed dramatically in the digital age, radically changing how people interact with information and create identities. The driving force behind this change is social media’s ubiquitous effect, a method of consumption deeply entwined with the complexities of individual and group identity. The enormous effects of social media on identity development in the digital age are examined in this essay. Social media’s importance as a consuming method stems from its many uses as a virtual hub for communication, self-expression, and human engagement. Users mold their online identities and impact the stories that permeate digital environments by actively engaging in a dynamic interplay between creation and consumption. People become designers of their digital identities as they go through the virtual halls of social media, creating and selecting online personas that speak to them. Within this framework, the essay’s thesis asserts that social media, as a consumption tool, actively participates in the continuing conversation about identity construction in the digital age and reflects societal shifts. As we continue this investigation, it becomes increasingly essential to sort through the main arguments and conflicting theories in the body of literature already in existence to offer a thorough framework for comprehending the intricate interactions between social media use and identity building.

Social media consumption in the digital age

Consumer culture has entered a revolutionary phase with the introduction of the digital age, which has radically changed how people engage with information and negotiate the complexities of the modern world. Featherstone (2010) and van Dijck (2009) offer essential viewpoints within this changing environment that establish the foundation for comprehending social media usage.

Featherstone (2010) emphasizes the significant impact of social media on people’s views and interactions with goods, services, and cultural phenomena to shed light on the complex dynamics of consumer culture in the digital age. He emphasizes how social media platforms have enabled an engaged and participatory nature, underscoring the shift from traditional consumption patterns. In this context, social media becomes a dynamic arena where users actively participate in the production and propagation of cultural narratives and are passive consumers of content.

Van Dijck (2009) expands on Featherstone’s observations by examining the notion of user-generated content and its consequences for user agency in the digital sphere. Her research explores how consumers become active producers of the material they receive through interactions with social media platforms. Van Dijck challenges established hierarchies in developing and distributing cultural objects through his study, which focuses on democratizing content creation.

Featherstone and van Dijck’s combined views offer a solid basis for understanding the changing dynamics of social media usage. Because of the digital age’s increased interactivity and user agency, people actively influence the cultural landscape through their interactions and consumption on social media platforms. In later parts of this essay, we will go deeper into this fundamental concept of how social media affects identity formation.

Identity formation on social media

Social media has become a dynamic space in the modern digital age where people purposefully create and express their social identities. Lüders et al. (2022) have conducted research that offers significant insights into internet users’ deliberate and inventive tactics during this complex identity-creation process.

In this strategic approach, visual components become essential. According to Lüders et al. (2022), profile images and other well-chosen visual information effectively project particular aspects of social identity. Users purposefully modify these images to fit their ideal version of themselves, highlighting the deliberate aspect of identity presentation on social media.

Moreover, the study illuminates people’s deliberate and active interaction with social media content. According to Lüders et al. (2022), conscious decisions and creative expression interact in a complex way to shape one’s online persona. Social identity is built in the virtual world through users’ purposeful contributions to online interactions.

Lüders et al.’s (2022) research essentially highlights social media’s role in people actively and intentionally constructing their identities. Users explore the digital landscape to honestly portray themselves within the online community through deliberate visual choices and meaningful involvement; in the digital age, where the intentional creation of online personas adds to the complex fabric of modern social interaction, understanding these tactics becomes crucial to understanding the broader consequences of social media on identity development.

Influencer culture and self-representation

With the constantly evolving social media landscape, influencer culture has emerged as a significant phenomenon affecting how individuals interact online and present themselves. This study was led by Abidin (2016), who explored the intricacies of influencer culture and showed how influencers purposefully use social media as a subversive frivolity, especially when seen through the lens of selfies.

According to Abidin’s (2016) analysis of influencer culture, influencers build their own digital identities and produce content. Influencers participate in a special kind of subversive frivolity, a purposeful playfulness that challenges conventional norms and expectations through the intended usage of selfies. This defies preconceived notions about narcissism and vanity by going beyond the apparent level of self-presentation and subtly expressing individuality.

There are many different ways that influencer culture affects how people portray themselves. Abidin (2016) provides an example of how influencers purposefully manage their online persona through well-planned selfies that give insight into their daily routine, wardrobe preferences, and way of life. Although it may appear unplanned, this carefully chosen self-presentation is a deliberate attempt to construct an online persona that appeals to fans and fits with brand partnerships.

Furthermore, audience involvement in the digital sphere has been redefined by influencer culture. According to Abidin (2016), audiences engage in this subversive frivolity by connecting and consuming influencers’ content. The influencer-audience interaction is strengthened by the comments, likes, and shares, which turn self-representation into a cooperative effort. The audience participates in the continuing story of the influencer’s digital identity by interacting with the individual and the well-chosen persona.

Abidin (2016), for instance, gives instances of influencers who purposefully utilize selfies to question social conventions and promote diversity, body positivity, and authenticity. These influencers challenge beauty norms and encourage more authentic self-expression using subversive playfulness. The interaction sparked by this kind of information shows how society is changing and emphasizes how influencer culture may affect more general discussions about representation and identity.

Abidin (2016), for instance, gives instances of influencers who purposefully utilize selfies to question social conventions and promote diversity, body positivity, and authenticity. These influencers challenge beauty norms and encourage more authentic self-expression using subversive playfulness. The interaction sparked by this kind of information shows how society is changing and emphasizes how influencer culture may affect more general discussions about representation and identity.

Ultimately, Abidin (2016) sheds light on how people create and display their digital identities by observing influencer culture and using selfies as a subversive frivolity. Influencers and their interested audiences should both take great note of this purposeful and lighthearted self-representation. Influencer culture is changing how people show themselves and talk about identity, authenticity, and social standards in the digital age.

Citizen journalism and public discourse

The examination by Antony and Thomas (2010) of YouTube’s involvement in the Oscar Grant shooting incident provides insightful information about the critical role social media platforms play in citizen journalism and public debate. This analysis emphasizes social media’s influence on public opinion and discourse, highlighting its potential as a tool for information dissemination.

The study by Antony and Thomas (2010) shows how YouTube developed into a significant hub for citizen journalism as a social media tool after the Oscar Grant shooting incident. The event was captured on raw, unedited video that users uploaded and shared, defying conventional media narratives. By democratizing the flow of information, citizens could question traditional media hierarchies by actively participating in news reporting and sharing.

The study’s conclusions make clear how social media shapes public conversation. The YouTube recordings served as a spark for extensive discussions, arguments, and awareness-raising about the tragedy. Social media platforms’ instantaneousness and accessibility allowed people to interact in real-time, share viewpoints, and add to a larger conversation about issues of justice, accountability, and police brutality.

Antony and Thomas (2010) point out that YouTube videos stimulated conversations on various social and racial justice sites, resulting in a group conversation beyond geographical bounds. These movies’ comment sections turned into online town halls where people discussed interpretations, exchanged assessments, and voiced concerns. Social media platforms facilitate decentralized and participative public debate, further democratising sledge and allowing people to create narratives.

Furthermore, Antony and Thomas (2010) stress how social media might give citizen journalism transformational power. The grassroots reporting on YouTube prompted a more critical and varied analysis of the incident, which offered alternate viewpoints and refuted the official story. The de-democratization storytelling improves the news cycle by introducing a range of views and experiences into the discourse and enabling individuals to engage in it actively. Social media platforms play a crucial role in encouraging citizen journalism and influencing public discussion, as evidenced by Antony and Thomas’s (2010) analysis of YouTube in the context of the Oscar Grant shooting event.

The study demonstrates how these platforms facilitate users’ active participation in reporting and discussion of noteworthy events, thus promoting a public discourse that is more diverse, inclusive, and lively. Social media’s influence on citizen journalism and public debate still transforms society’s narratives and perspectives even as it develops further.

Building digital communities and digital identity

Ilieva’s (2022) Forbes piece highlights the benefits of social media community creation and emphasises the importance of these networks in forming digital identities. The essay emphasises that these communities might change the digital world by promoting connection, cooperation, and a sense of belonging.

Ilieva’s observations demonstrate how online communities give people a forum to interact with others who share their interests, have deep conversations, and find common ground. The Forbes article highlights how internet communities let people from different backgrounds connect and build solid digital identities by bridging geographical divides.

Moreover, Ilieva’s (2022) instances from the Forbes piece demonstrate how these communities develop into forums for cooperation and information exchange, enabling participants to participate actively in co-creating digital identities. Online communities allow people to grow personally and learn new skills, whether via shared interests or professional networks, helping them create a good and complex digital persona.

Ilieva’s Forbes piece highlights the advantages of online networks for developing digital identities. These areas show the transformative potential of digital communities in the modern online environment by fostering connection and collaboration and being essential to creating a complex and enriching digital identity.

Conclusion

In summary, this essay’s examination of social media’s influence on identity development has revealed a nuanced interaction between people and the digital environment. Featherstone and van Dijck underscored the interactive aspect of social media usage while offering fundamental insights into the changing consumer culture. Lüders et al. highlighted the dynamic element of self-presentation by exposing the deliberate and inventive methods people use to create their social identities. Abidin’s examination of influencer culture showed how social media—particularly selfies—becomes a stage for subversive playfulness that affects how users portray themselves and interact with others. The analysis of YouTube by Antony and Thomas about the Oscar Grant shooting event demonstrated how social media may challenge established media hierarchies and play a revolutionary role in citizen journalism and public discourse.

After some thought, the broader ramifications imply that social media promotes inclusivity and the democratising flow of knowledge, acting as a catalyst for societal change. Future research points to a constant evolution of digital identities as users gain proficiency in using social media for deliberate self-presentation and interaction. Navigating the intricacies of our digitally connected and interconnected world requires a grasp of the enormous impact that social media has on identity creation, mainly as the digital environment develops. An understanding of the complex ways in which social media shapes identities in the modern period is made more nuanced by the interactions among citizen journalism, influencer culture, self-presentation, and online communities.

References

Abidin, C. (2016). “Aren’t these just young, rich women doing vain things online?”: Influencer selfies as subversive frivolity. Social media+ society2(2), 2056305116641342.

Antony, M. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2010). ‘This is citizen journalism at its finest’: YouTube and the public sphere in the Oscar Grant shooting incident. New media & society12(8), 1280-1296.

Featherstone, M. (2010). Body, image and affect in consumer culture. Body & Society16(1), 193-221.

Ilieva, M. (2022, December 9). Council Post: Building A Community On Social Media. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesbusinesscouncil/2022/12/09/building-a-community-on-social-media/?sh=6206fa732338

Lüders, A., Dinkelberg, A., & Quayle, M. (2022). Becoming “us” in digital spaces: How online users creatively and strategically exploit social media affordances to build up social identity. Acta Psychologica228, 103643.

Van Dijck, J. (2009). Users like you? TheTheorizingency in user-generated content. Media, culture & society31(1), 41-58.

Active Social Media Impact on Self-Esteem and Psychological Wellbeing

Abstract

This extensive review is guided by two questions: (1). Does active social media use impact adolescent self-esteem? How so? And (2). Does active social media use affect levels of depression during adolescence? How so? Themes of adverse outcomes abound, such as issues with body image, cyberbullying, and increased social comparison that lowers self-esteem and increases sadness. Recognizing social media’s dual nature, the review also emphasizes its advantages, including how it may improve communication, promote pleasant social connections, and give people a platform for expression. Furthermore, the literature recommends educational programs, parental guidance, and online community initiatives to promote responsible adolescent social media use while acknowledging its potential mental health benefits.

Keywords: Adolescent, social media, mental health, self-esteem, depression, social comparison, cyberbullying, body image, educational programs, parental guidance, online community initiatives.

Introduction

Today’s adolescents ranging from (11-17) years living in a digital environment, with social media’s ubiquitous influence, especially during the COVID-19 outbreak, favouring Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube. According to a 2019 ISTAT survey, an astounding 85.8% of Italian teenagers between the ages of 11 and 17 frequently use smartphones, and more than 72% use them to access the internet (Bozzola, 2022). The COVID-19 epidemic exacerbated this tendency; according to a 2021 CENSIS report, 95% of Italian adolescents use smartphones, with 46% using them for more than three hours daily. Social media is the dominant platform; 72% of users prefer Instagram, 62% use TikTok, and 58% use YouTube (Bozzola, 2022). These figures demonstrate the widespread use of media devices and the concentration of teenage activity on popular social media sites at a time when online connectedness and participation were essential for preserving social bonds and educational continuity.

The pervasive adoption of social media among adolescents marks a transformative phase intertwined with challenges that shape their identity, self-discovery, and susceptibility to peer influence. During a critical stage of their mental and emotional growth, adolescents struggle with the significant adverse effects of social media on their well-being. Concerns about body image, cyberbullying, and the urge to follow trends online are substantial issues, and these platforms’ continual connectivity exacerbates anxiety, addiction, and sleep disorders. Achieving an equilibrium between the advantages of social media, such as improved communication and educational prospects, and the possible hazards is a complex task. Parents, educators, and healthcare professionals must thoroughly understand the nuances of social media use within this age group to support and guide adolescents as they navigate the complex digital landscape and promote healthy development during this crucial life stage.

The literature review will focus on answering two significant questions: (1). Does active social media use impact self-esteem during adolescence? How so? And ( 2). Does active social media use affect levels of depression during adolescence? How so? First, the essay explored the complex relationship between active use of social media and its impact on teenage self-esteem, looking at how social comparison, exposure to idealized images, and particular platform activities affect changes in self-worth. Secondly, the review examined the complex relationships between teenage depression and active social media use, looking into possible connections between cyberbullying, unfavourable online interactions, and the consumption of content that may exacerbate depressive symptoms. In the third part, I concluded by advocating for targeted interventions, collaborative efforts, and a holistic approach to address the complex impact of social media on adolescents’ psychological well-being.

Theoretical Framework

The social comparison and the social identity theories are the theoretical frameworks that are used to investigate how active social media use affects psychological well-being, specifically in terms of depression and self-esteem throughout adolescence. Therefore, the Social Comparison Theory shows how active social media use might cause adolescents to compare constantly, potentially affecting self-esteem. Additionally, the social identity theory argues that individuals place themselves and others in social categories according to whom they identify, and their self-worth strongly depends on how successfully or well they evaluate these social categories. Adolescents participate in online communities in which they develop their social identity by sharing interests and character traits. A social identity theory developed by Turner and Tajfel (1979) stipulates that an individual’s sense of self is rooted in memberships (Turner & Tajfel, 1979). Adolescents’ involvement and identification with online groups in social media might affect their self-esteem. Interactions between these groups can make people feel good about themselves, and bad experiences or comparing oneself with other groups can reduce self-confidence and increase symptoms of depression. Hence, the combination of Social Comparison and social identity theories is a more robust theory to study the detailed patterns of the active usage of social media leading to mental health issues like self-esteem and depression in adolescence.

Research Literature Review

Negative Impacts of Social Media Use on Adolescence Wellbeing

Social Comparison and Lowered Self-esteem

The social media platform is associated with negative self-esteem among teenagers, leading to an adverse effect on their psychological health. Lee (2020) explores the impact of social comparison orientation on psychological well-being within social networking sites. The precise findings of Lee’s study show a causal relationship or correlation between changes in teenagers’ self-esteem and the frequency or kind of social media activity. Regular exposure to curated and potentially idealized representations of others may cause increased susceptibility to changes in self-esteem among adolescents who engage in upward comparisons on Facebook. Therefore, Specific activities and comparisons on social media decrease teens’ self-esteem.

Additionally, media platforms, especially Instagram, affect adolescents’ social anxiety through social comparison and self-esteem. Irmer and Schmiedek’s (2023) research clarifies the complex relationships between teenage well-being and daily social media use. The study found significant correlations between social media use and decreased positive affect (β = -0.31, R² = 9.7%), increased negative affect (β = 0.26, R² = 6.9%), and lower positive self-worth (β = -0.28, R² = 7.7% between individuals (Irmer & Schmiedek, 2023). MSEM found that upward social comparisons mediated these associations, underlining their importance in well-being outcomes. Days with more social media use were linked to more extreme upward social comparisons within the same person (β = 0.09, R² = 5.6%), linked to lower positive and higher negative self-worth. Furthermore, statistical connections are found in Jiang and Ngien’s (2020) survey, which investigates the relationship between Instagram and social anxiety. With bootstrapping confirming the mediation effect (95% CI = [0.0151, 0.0729]), path analysis revealed a significant correlation between Instagram use and increased social comparison (β = 0.23, p < 0.001) and heightened social anxiety (β = 0.28, p < 0.001) (Jiang & Ngien, 2020). Thus, social comparison and self-esteem were negatively correlated, suggesting that Instagram use affects social anxiety through these mechanisms.

Social Media Association with Depression

Teenage depression and social media use highlight a strong linkage, demonstrating links with negative mental health consequences such as anxiety, restless nights, and low self-esteem. Intensive social networking is linked to an elevated rate of clinical depressive disorder manifestations other than distress, sleeplessness, low self-worth, and both social and look anxiety. Interestingly, among research approaches, surveys dominated; they adopted shared scales to measure different elements such as depression, social media usage, self-esteem, and sleep quality. Interestingly, eight studies reported more frequent depressive symptoms in female social media users than among their male counterparts. This assessment highlights the need for monitoring adolescent’s usage of social media as well as support to those facing depression. Nevertheless, it underscores the need for more studies that will lead to a thorough understanding of the causative factors and a standardized means of evaluation in this intricate linkage. Hence, the scoping analysis shows a worrying connection between adolescent social media use and depression, requiring intervention, support, and more research.

Media Content in Shaping Body Perceptions

Social media’s beauty comparisons and sexualized images cause adolescent body dissatisfaction and mental health issues. The study comprehensively analyzed the link between body image disorders and using social media, including how often an individual compares themselves with their followers in photos or videos online. This study involving 1331 participants aged 15-35 found that the frequency of such comparisons correlated with the drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Along similar lines, Papageorgiou et al. (2022) examined the effect of sexually explicit images on social media platforms on adolescent’s girl’s mental health. Through in-depth interviews with 24 girls aged 14−17, the study found that exposure to such images worsens body dissatisfaction and exacerbates appearance-related worries (Papageorgiou et al., 2022). These girls showed self-criticism about their appearance, drawing links with the negative effect of social media in changing their physical features as an attempt for acceptance or validation by family or peers. The findings in these two studies further emphasize the vulnerability of adolescents, especially girls, to the adverse effects of electronic media on their self-image. Hence, such consideration should be integral in all prevention programs dealing with these problems or treatment plans. Therefore, Studies on comparisons and sexualized images on social media show unfavourable associations with adolescents’ body image and mental health.

Positive Impacts of Social Media Use on Self-Esteem and Psychological Wellbeing

Positive Social Interaction

Social media promotes healthy social interactions and the development of essential qualities for young people to have good mental health. Youth can interact and exchange thoughts and feelings via various forms of media such as texts, voice, video, and images on social media sites, including Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and YouTube. These instruments allow the youths to create beneficial cyberspaces for positive socialization. The studies imply that social media forms a virtual place for communication among the youths in which they present their problems and get advice from peers. Also, the American Psychological Association (2023) shows how having good relations with others can influence someone to grow up happy and satisfied with their lives, have meaningful associations, be optimistic about themselves, and build character. As a result, it should be noted that the benefits of social media, where it works most optimally about positive social contacts for children’s psychiatric care, require a balancing act (American Psychological Association, 2023). Thus, Social media promotes beneficial social relationships and mental health in kids. Therefore, its effects must be considered.

Enhanced Communication and Expression

Social media platforms like TikTok enable constructive communication through diverse content formats and promote positive expression. Ettisa (2023) conducted a literature study that delves into the effects of TikTok on students, offering insights into a range of areas such as academic achievement, mental health, social relationships, and overall well-being (Ettisa, 2023). TikTok is a famous social networking website used by many worldwide, especially students. The evaluation acknowledges TikTok’s function as a platform for creating educational content in addition to entertainment. It offers insights into the positive and bad aspects of the app’s influence on pupils. The authors draw attention to worries about possible diversions, addictive tendencies, and changes in study habits brought on by TikTok use among students. Positive and negative effects are acknowledged, and the platform’s function in spreading mental health information is highlighted in the discussion of the influence on mental health (Ettisa, 2023). The review also explores TikTok’s importance in the entertainment business and its impact on social connections. Thus, TikTok’s effect on students—educational material creation, mental health issues, entertainment influence, and social relationships—has to be considered while designing treatments.

References

American Psychological Association. (2023, May). Health Advisory on Social Media Use in Adolescence. Apa.org; American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/topics/social-media-internet/health-advisory-adolescent-social-media-use

Bozzola, E. (2022). The Use of Social Media in Children and Adolescents: Scoping Review on the Potential Risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(16), 9960. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169960

Ettisa, D. L. (2023). The Impact of TikTok on Students: A Literature Review. Qeios. https://doi.org/10.32388/EPFGO6

Irmer, A., & Schmiedek, F. (2023). Associations between youth’s daily social media use and well-being are mediated by upward comparisons. Communications Psychology1(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s44271-023-00013-0

Jiang, S., & Ngien, A. (2020). The Effects of Instagram Use, Social Comparison, and Self-Esteem on Social Anxiety: A Survey Study in Singapore. Social Media + Society6(2), 205630512091248. sagepub. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120912488

Lee, J. K. (2020). The effects of social comparison orientation on psychological well-being in social networking sites: Serial mediation of perceived social support and self-esteem. Current Psychology41(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01114-3

Papageorgiou, A., Fisher, C., & Cross, D. (2022). “Why don’t I look like her?” how adolescent girls view social media and its connection to body image. BMC Women’s Health22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-022-01845-4

Turner, J. C., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Social comparison and group interest in ingroup favouritism. European Journal of Social Psychology9(2), 187–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420090207

Deconstructing Digital Realities: The Landscape of Fake News, Data Privacy, Social Media Impact

Social media reigns in the current era of the virtual world, and its impact cannot be denied. This entangled territory raises profound issues of fake information, diminished privacy, user rights, and mental well-being. These issues are vividly portrayed in “The Social Dilemma” and “The Great Hack'”. On the contrary, a more thorough investigation based on information that is available in the public domain, as well as sources online, will shed light on the underlying psychological, ethical, and socio-economic aspects of the challenges caused by social media users.

Unraveling the Psychology of Fake News Belief

Fake news or “belief in lies” is a complex phenomenon under different psychological and social factors. Confirmation bias and selective exposure are cognitive biases through which people develop their worldviews. People look for information supporting their prejudices and create echo chambers in which misinformation grows (Pennycook and David 388). Besides, societal effects, including peer pressure and social acceptance, also play a significant role in spreading and adopting myths. With the advent of the internet and the many ways information can be sourced, amplifying these dynamics is even more straightforward, and misleading information is readily accepted.

Balancing Act: Targeted Ads vs. Personal Privacy

The issue of balancing targeted ads against the rights to personal privacy lies at the core of modern digital concerns. Targeted marketing enables organizations to approach specific populations, increasing the relevancy of adverts to consumers. While it may be a good business practice to collect the personal information of users, there are ethical issues regarding whether the privacy of users has been sacrificed for a more significant benefit to companies (Ullah et al. 1). Ensuring fair practice and robust security means that it is essential to develop transparency around the use of personal information to provide personalized content without breaching personal privacy.

Empowering Users: Social Media Realms and Rights

Social networking with social media has become quite a complex interplay of power between users and sites. Thus, questions need to be raised about the rights and agency they are entitled to in these digital environments where their participation contributes to the content that fuels engagements and profits. Transparency, user control, and empowerment represent an effective response to the idea of users as the product (Ullah et al. 1). It entails a right to understand and control the person’s information as well as customizing one’s digital experience and measures applied by the platforms in case of unethical behavior. Social Media firms must balance their profit motives and protect users’ rights to nurture a fairer digital environment.

The Battle Against Fake News: Social Media Companies’ Role

The spread of fake news through social media companies is among the most significant means of disseminating information. These algorithms intended for user engagement tend to exaggerate sensation, and misinformation spreads quickly (Iosifidis and Nicholas 64). Firms can solve this problem by considering multiple approaches, such as good algorithm design, fact-checking, and user training. It is high time social media platforms realize that they are members of society and have a duty to build an accurate rather than viral community. Preventing the spread of falsehood while pursuing profitability is a crucial consideration involving ethical considerations and working with regulatory bodies.

Safeguarding Mental Health: Social Media’s Responsibility

Mental health effects associated with social media have received more recent and considerable interest. Such algorithms are developed to manipulate negative feelings such as anger and annoyance, which may cause anxiety or depression in users. Hence, social media companies should take responsibility for users’ social behavior as it may lead to unwanted damage. It entails reassessing algorithmic frameworks, introducing users’ well-being in product development, and giving mental health support facilities (Kelly 60). User engagement metrics must strike a balance with users’ mental well-being by shifting priorities and committing to ethical practices. As a result, having a multidimensional view of fake news, the disintegration of privacy, users’ rights, and challenges associated with mental health about social media is imperative and calls for striking the right balance.

Analysis of “The Social Dilemma” and “The Great Hack”

The Social Dilemma

“The Social Dilemma” briefly examines social media’s negative consequences, particularly algorithmic effects on user actions. The documentary shows that such platforms are addictive to making money for the owners; hence, algorithm manipulations in such platforms are a big ethical challenge (Preston 77). The documentary points out how these algorithms unwittingly amplify disinformation, polarization, and mental illness. One of the film’s strengths is its ability to present abstract ideas in familiar ways. Getting insiders to talk about interviews adds credence, giving an insider look into the moral crises that prevail in technology (Preston 78). Critics argue that it is shortsighted of the film to pin down society’s dysfunction as solely the fault of technology without considering more fundamental factors such as polarization and misinformation. “The Social Dilemma,” however, effectively highlights individuals’ concerns arising from using social media. Viewers are provoked into rediscovering their relationship with technology and how much an algorithm could change one’s life. Personal stories of various tech insiders humanize the narrative by creating feelings that engage audience support.

The Great Hack

“The Great Hack” targets data privacy, political manipulation, and selling personal information for targeting advertisements. The narrative in this documentary is woven through crucial figures within the Cambridge Analytica scandal. It explains how users’ data were utilized to gain political milestones (Nashiroh et al. 53). It shows this conveniently through live-action movie scenes and interviews with people who have felt its effects. One of the most significant pros is that it can interlink different factors like data privacy. Data misuse is a generalized term related to the personal accounts of those whose lives have been discontinued through these illegal practices (Nashiroh et al. 54). These critics suggest that the movie might be too dramatic despite offering a simplified picture. Notwithstanding criticisms, “The Great Hack” highlights the urgency for effective data protection regulations. These calls include public and private bodies’ proposals on regulating social media and their consequences.

Comparative Analysis

Although both documentaries look at the social implications of technology, they do so differently. “The Social Dilemma” has psychological and social implications of algorithmic control, while “The Great Hack” concerns political and data security. It is done by effectively utilizing the emotional appeal in driving home their emergency messages. The Social Dilemma is mainly about addiction to social media and its effect on mental health, while in The Great Hack, there are data manipulation issues during the elections. As a set, the documentary emphasizes the commercial motifs of the tech firms and the likely damage from untamed algorithmic might.

Conclusion

In conclusion, all social media risks can be identified by analyzing fake news believability, the fine line between customized commercials and personal privacy, cyber rights, and social networks’ role in stopping misinformation and ensuring mental health. The solution to these problems necessitates striking a delicate balance between technological advancement and morality. The impact of online entertainment is an impression of society’s qualities and obligations. Associations create an innovative, moral, computerized worldview that focuses on client government assistance and opportunity by distinguishing and tending to such hardships.

Works Cited

Iosifidis, Petros, and Nicholas Nicoli. “The Battle to End Fake News: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Facebook Announcements on How it Combats Disinformation.” International Communication Gazette, vol. 82, no. 1, 2020, pp. 60-81.

Kelly, Yvonne, et al. “Social Media Use and Adolescent Mental Health: Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.” EClinicalMedicine, vol. 6, 2018, pp. 59-68.

Nashiroh, Tsalist Syafaatun, and Ribut Wahyudi. “Language of Propaganda in The Great Hack Movie.” Rainbow: Journal of Literature, Linguistics and Culture Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, 2023, pp. 48-60.

Pennycook, Gordon, and David G. Rand. “The Psychology of Fake News.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 25, no. 5, 2021, pp. 388-402.

Preston, Paschal. “Introduction: The Social Dilemma: Partial Insights Amidst Fuzzy Frames.” The Political Economy of Communication, vol. 8, no. 2, 2021, pp.76-103.

Ullah, Imdad, Roksana Boreli, and Salil S. Kanhere. “Privacy in Targeted Advertising: A Survey.” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 2020, pp. 1-28.