Specialisation: Social Issues

Child Exploitation, Trafficking, and Prostitution


Child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution are all forms of child abuse. They involve the exploitation of children for financial gain. The trafficker or pimp targets vulnerable children and lures them into a life of exploitation. The child is then forced to engage in sexual activity or work in hazardous conditions. Children’s overall health can be adversely affected by this. Child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution are all linked to poverty. Poverty increases a child’s risk of being abused, neglected, or exploited. They may be compelled to work in hazardous circumstances, sell drugs, or consent to illegal sexual activities to make ends meet.

Child exploitation

Child exploitation is a form of abuse in which adults use children for their gain. This can take many forms, including sexual abuse, labor exploitation, and using children to produce pornography. Child exploitation is a global problem and one that is often hidden. Exploited children are often too afraid or ashamed to speak out, so the abuse continues. Exploiting children is a form of child abuse and a violation of their constitutional protections. Each child is entitled to be protected from harm and treated equally at all times, regardless of the circumstances. Unfortunately, child exploitation robs children of their childhood and their future. But there is hope. Organizations like UNICEF are working to end child exploitation and help those affected. We can end this form of child abuse with continued awareness and action.

Child trafficking

Child trafficking refers to the illegal transport of minors for exploitation. Child trafficking is a serious domestic and international problem and is often linked to other forms of child abuse and exploitation. There are many reasons why children are trafficked, including poverty, conflict, and natural disasters (Greenbaum, Yun, & Todres, 2018). Children orphaned or who have run away from home are especially vulnerable to trafficking, as are children with disabilities. In some cases, children are sold into trafficking by their own families. Child trafficking is a lucrative business for traffickers, who can profit by selling children into slavery or forced labor. Unfortunately, this means that children are often seen as commodities, and their rights and well-being are often ignored. This is a tragic reality for many children who are trafficked each year.

Child prostitution

In many developing countries, child prostitution is rampant. Children as young as six years old are being forced into sexual servitude by adults who take advantage of their poverty and desperation. The majority of child prostitutes are girls, and most of them come from low-income families (Deb Sunny & Majumdar, 2020). They are lured into the sex trade with promises of money, food, or shelter. Once involved, they are often beaten and forced to work long hours. They also risk contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.

Domestic violence and its connection to child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

There is a strong correlation between domestic violence and child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution. Children who witness domestic violence or are victims of it are more likely to be involved in prostitution and trafficking later in life. There are many reasons for this. First, they may see violence as a regular part of relationships and think it is okay to treat their partners this way. Second, they may feel they are not worthy of love and respect and that the only way to get these things is to sell themselves. Third, they may have been told by their abuser that they are worthless and that no one else would want them (Le, et al., 2018). Fourth, they may feel that they have no other options and that this is the only way to make money. Fifth, they may be trying to escape from their abuser and think this is the only way to do so. Sixth, they may have been promised things by their abuser that they will get if they do this. Another reason is that children who experience domestic violence often develop low self-esteem and a sense of powerlessness. This can lead them to believe that they are not worthy of love or respect and that their only value lies in their sexual appeal. As a result, they may be more likely to engage in prostitution or other sexual exploitation to feel wanted and valued. Another reason why domestic violence can lead to child exploitation is that it can create a cycle of abuse (Lloyd, 2018). Sadly, children exposed to family violence are more likely to become violent as adults. This is often since they have learned that violence is an acceptable way to resolve conflict and exert power over others. Additionally, children subjected to domestic violence are more prone to psychological issues like stress disorder, hopelessness, and tension. They may find it challenging to establish positive interactions due to these psychological problems, which raises the possibility that they will turn to prostitution or other social vices as a coping mechanism (Riedl et al., 2019).

Perpetrators of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

There is no one face of a child exploitation trafficker or pimp. They can be men or women, young or old, of any race or nationality. They may operate alone or as part of a more extensive criminal network. Some may seem kind and caring, while others may be violent and abusive. Some traffickers lure children and young adults with promises of a better life, love, or exciting job opportunities (Durisin & van der Meulen, 2021). They may use social media, online chat rooms, or dating websites to make contact. Once they have gained the trust of their victim, they may then threaten or coerce them into performing commercial sex acts or working in the labor trafficking industry. Traffickers often target vulnerable children and young adults who have run away from home, are living in poverty, have a history of abuse or neglect, or are struggling with substance abuse. They may also target children and young adults who are LGBTQ+, undocumented or have a disability.

Consequences of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

Child exploitation is a serious problem that can have several negative consequences for the involved children. They may suffer from physical and sexual abuse and emotional and psychological trauma. This can lead to several problems in their lives, including difficulties in school, problems with relationships, and mental health issues. Trafficking is another serious issue that can have several negative consequences for the involved children. They may be forced to work in dangerous and unhealthy conditions and be subjected to physical and sexual abuse (Martins, 2019). This can lead to several problems in their lives, including mental health issues, difficulties in school, and problems with relationships. Prostitution is another severe problem that can have several negative consequences for the involved children. They may be subjected to physical and sexual abuse and emotional and psychological trauma. This can lead to several problems in their lives, including mental health issues, difficulties in school, and problems with relationships.

How can society help victims of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

The first step in helping victims of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution is to raise awareness of the issue. This can be done through education and public awareness campaigns. By increasing public awareness, more people will be able to identify the signs of child exploitation and trafficking and will be more likely to report it. In addition to raising awareness, society can help victims of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution by providing support services. These services can include shelter, counseling, and legal assistance (Greenbaum, Yun, & Todres, 2018). By providing these services, victims will be able to get the help they need to recover from their experiences and start rebuilding their lives. Finally, society can help victims of child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution by working to prevent these crimes from happening in the first place. This can be done by working to improve the economic and social conditions that make these crimes possible. By working to prevent child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution, society can make a difference in the victims’ lives and help create a safer world for all children.

International law on child exploitation, trafficking, or prostitution

Several different international treaties and conventions address these issues in part. For example, International laws prevent child abuse and trafficking, and countries are obligated to avert and penalize these offenses under the Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Also, the UN Framework to Prevent, Limit, and Penalise Child trafficking, calls on countries to develop interventions to combat the smuggling and exploitation of children (Mbakogu, 2020). States must stand up and defend teenage girls from abuse and victimization, such as sex trafficking and human trafficking. In addition to these treaties and conventions, several international organizations work to combat child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution. These organizations include the UN Children’s Fund and the International Organization for Migration.

US national laws on shielding children from exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

In the United States, several national laws work to shield children from exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) is one such law that prohibits trafficking in persons, including children. The TVPA also establishes penalties for traffickers and assists victims of trafficking. The Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 further enhances the TVPA by providing additional protections for child victims of trafficking and increasing the penalties for traffickers. The Protect Our Kids Act of 2012 creates a national strategy to prevent child trafficking and exploitation (Hounmenou & ‘Grady, 2019). The Child Trafficking Prevention and Justice Act of 2017 enhances the ability of police departments to thoroughly investigate issues involving the exploitation and trafficking of children. These laws are just a few examples of national efforts to combat child trafficking and exploitation. State and local laws also play a role in protecting children from these crimes. For example, many states require businesses to post human trafficking awareness materials in their establishment. These materials often include information on how to report suspected trafficking activity. By working together, federal, state, and local law enforcement can more effectively protect children from trafficking and exploitation.

How child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution are prosecuted in the US

The exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution of children are all crimes that are punishable by law in the United States, both on the state and national levels. The creation of children’s pornographic content and its circulation, purchase, and acquisition are all illegal. In addition, it makes it illegal for kids to be exploited sexually, including through smuggling, sex trafficking, and other sexual activities or abusive behavior. The laws of each state are different, but the vast majority make it illegal to produce, distribute, or acquire child pornography and manipulate kids for sexual purposes.

Civil remedies for child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution

Several civil remedies are available to child victims of exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution. These include but are not limited to: first is restitution: This is a court-ordered payment from the perpetrator to the victim to compensate them for their losses. This can include medical and counseling expenses, lost wages, and other damages (Gies et al., 2020) . The second is injunctive relief: This court order prohibits the perpetrator from engaging in certain activities or contacting the victim. This can include an order to stay away from the victim’s home, school, or workplace or not post specific information about the victim online. Third, civil damages: This is a monetary award from the court to the victim. This can include compensatory damages (for pain and suffering) and punitive damages (to punish the perpetrator and deter others from similar conduct).


Child exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution are severe global problems that must be addressed. While there has been some progress in recent years, much more must be done to protect children from these abuses. Governments and NGOs need to work together to strengthen laws and enforcement and provide victims with support and services. The public also needs to be educated about the issue to be more aware of the signs of abuse and report it. Only by working together can we hope to put an end to these horrific practices.


Deb, S., Sunny, A. M., & Majumdar, B. (2020). Child Trafficking for Prostitution: The Exploitation of Poverty-stricken Situation. In Disadvantaged Children in India (pp. 49-83). Springer, Singapore.

Durisin, E., & van der Meulen, E. (2021). The Perfect Victim:‘Young girls’, domestic trafficking, and anti-prostitution politics in Canada. Anti-trafficking review, (16), 145-149.

Greenbaum, V. J., Yun, K., & Todres, J. (2018). Child trafficking: Issues for policy and practice. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics46(1), 159-163.

Gies, S. V., Healy, E., Green, B., & Bobnis, A. (2020). From villain to victim: The impact of safe harbor laws on minors involved in commercial sexual exploitation. Criminology & Public Policy, 19(2), 389-408.

Hounmenou, C., & O’Grady, C. (2019). A review and critique of the US responses to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Children and Youth Services Review98, 188-198.

Le, P. D., Ryan, N., Rosenstock, Y., & Goldmann, E. (2018). Health issues associated with commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States: A systematic review. Behavioral medicine44(3), 219-233.

Lloyd, M. (2018). Domestic violence and education: Examining the impact of domestic violence on young children, children, and young people and the potential role of schools. Frontiers in psychology9, 2094.

Martins, P. C. (2019). Child trafficking: The construction of a social problem. Modern slavery and human trafficking, 1-16.

Mbakogu, I. (2020). Validating Children’s Stories and Decisions after Trafficking for Prostitution. Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI)1(2), 97-107.

Riedl, D., Beck, T., Exenberger, S., Daniels, J., Dejaco, D., Unterberger, I., & Lampe, A. (2019). Violence from childhood to adulthood: The influence of child victimization and domestic violence on physical health in later life. Journal of psychosomatic research116, 68-74.

Shoji, M., & Tsubota, K. (2022). Sexual exploitation of trafficked children: Survey evidence from child sex workers in Bangladesh. Journal of Comparative Economics50(1), 101-117.

The Issue of Human Trafficking

Children in India and Syrian refugees are two key references when Human Trafficking is mentioned. These two depict how priceless human life can be converted into a commodity to generate income for some self-minded individuals. Children in India showcases the intense struggles of being a child within the borders of India. These children, unlike others worldwide, are subjected to excellent voting levels. On the other hand, Syrian refugees depict the struggles that Syrians, especially Syrian women, face as refugees in foreign countries to meet their basic needs. A review of these two indicates the growing human trafficking issue that raises great concern.

According to the human trafficking book, the trafficking of human beings has been induced for various reasons. Human labor, commercial sex work, and others are some of the reasons that have now seen traffickers treating fellow humans like mere commodities. In Children in India, human trafficking majorly involves the children population of the country. The video showcases the struggles the children are naturally born into and forced to live with. India is heavily populated even though the land heavily encroaches on extreme poverty levels (Al Jazeera English, 2019). The attempt to end this vicious cycle has proven to be costly, with kids now being forced to serve as laborers while others are forced to seek a better life abroad. The children in India are now being trafficked. Trafficking in India is prominent because of ignorance, as parents are consensual. India lacks enough educational facilities to protect children from child labor. There is no border security in India to control trafficking across the Indian borders. Indian children are the most vulnerable to global issues of child trafficking. Communities in India are creating awareness to end human trafficking and rescue those who are already victimized.

Regarding Syrian refugees, the search for better living conditions has proven to be a contributing factor in human trafficking. From the book Human Trafficking, it’s clear that human trafficking can be induced by the desire to live a better life. Most victims of human trafficking are women who seek a better life for their children when they run out of options in their countries and now have to move to new countries as refugees. Such women could have been forced into poverty by unavoidable circumstances. The Syrian refugees showcase how Syrian women are forced to move to foreign countries like Lebanon in search of better lives for their kids following their husbands’ deaths in the war. These women are forced to work at nightclubs, where they are eventually drifted into prostitution as a means of earning a living (BBC News, 2017). These women are also mistreated by their owners, who lock them, depriving them of freedom. Further, they face the threat of falling victim to sex trafficking and are often arrested in police raids and deported back to their country full of torment.

The Children in India and Syrian refugees are more alike than anticipated. Poverty is seen to be the common denominator between the two when it comes to human trafficking. The Human Trafficking book explains that suffering and needing to meet needs can cause sex trafficking. Women can willingly agree to human trafficking to be trafficked to foreign nations where they seek new opportunities. Syrian refugees moved to Lebanon after being forced by the hardships of life in their countries. Syrian women with kids flock to the Lebanese streets begging for food and money. The same case applies to Children in India, where children are trafficked mainly due to poverty. The Indian children are sold to traffickers by their parents, who see this as an opportunity to give the children a chance at a better life, and the money from the sale can also be used to meet the needs of the rest of the family. The poverty issues led to the need for laborers, who majorly comprised these trafficked workers.

The Human Trafficking book reviews how trafficked humans have their lives now at the disposal of their new owners. There are restrictions to the lives of those trafficked. Human traffickers often sell their victims to people who would place some unbearable conditions and take control of their lives (Coppedge, 2016). The children in India, the children, were sold by traffickers to new owners who would, in return, then use them as laborers. The owners would ‘discipline’ the children harshly as they now dictated their lives and forced them to labor duties like selling flowers. In the Children of India, a kid explains that her owner burnt her hands when she felt ill. The same can be related to the ‘pimps’ in the Syrian refugees. The refugee women of Syria were under the protection of such men who would offer them accommodation and other petty services in return for these women working for them at their nightclubs. The ‘pimps’ placed restrictions on these women’s lives in selfish measures to protect their businesses. For example, in the Syrian refugees, a woman confirms they have to follow a curfew placed on them by their ‘pimp’ and is afraid to speak further about it due to fear.

Despite these similarities between the Children in India and Syrian refugees, their comparison also has some differences. Even though Human Trafficking does not discriminate based on gender, age, or race, and anyone can be recruited into human trafficking, children are the most victims in India. In Syria, women make up the majority of the victims. The traffickers in India mainly target children as they are more vulnerable and make up most of the population. However, this is not the case in Syria, where women are the most victims. The motive for trafficking between the two is also different. In India, the victims are mainly used as laborers, while in Syria, the trafficked victims are used chiefly for commercial sex and to lure men into clubs. There is also a difference when it comes to consent. Children in India have no say in the issue, and their parents make consensual sales of their kids. This is, however, not the case when it comes to Syrian refugees who thought this might be a suggestion by a friend or someone else; the decision lies with the women themselves. It can also be noted that while the trafficked children of India try to escape their owners and flee back home, this is unlike the Syrian women. The women of Syria are often seen to try and evade police raids that will mean their deportation back home, something they seem not to take as a relief.

Conclusively, human trafficking has raised concern in the recent past. Poverty-ridden countries are more likely to experience high levels of Human Trafficking. Children in India and Syrian refugees are essential case studies when reviewing human trafficking in their respective countries. Poverty and other reasons have played a role in steering this vice. There is some resemblance in the two case studies; however, following a close observation, some apparent cut differences can also be seen. Children in India and Syrian refugees should be used to create awareness of the dangers of Human Trafficking. Integrated methods to deal with this concerning issue affecting poverty-embedded countries should be explored.


BBC News. (2017). The Syrian refugees turning to sex to survive – BBC News. In YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZqHUBkLv4E

Al Jazeera English. (2019). Children for Sale: The Fight Against Child Trafficking in India | REWIND. In YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5QXtdLaeUI

Coppedge, S. (2016). Chapter4: The Victims of Human Trafficking. A crucial part of prevention is learning from survivors about what has helped them avoid victimization (pgs. 68-91, The Human Trafficking book).

Abortion – Pro-Life

Abortion refers to the termination of the fetus’ life before its maturity. Abortion is among the most debated topics among supporters and opponents. Many people argue about whether abortion should be legalized or not, and they have different reasons for their choices. Endless debates are made concerning the specific topic globally, and the points given by each side are the same. Other groups believe that abortion is a personal topic and should not be a subject for discussion. Ending abortion is a decision that should be supported and debated to help create awareness of its effects both on the mother and the unborn child. Abortion should be illegal in all states except in certain situations since it is the murder of a defenseless unborn child.

Abortion should be illegalized globally. Since the process involves termination of life, the action is equal to murder. One of its detrimental effects is that it involves killing the unborn child but also risks the pregnant mother’s life (Blackshaw & Rodger, 2019). Mothers who carry out an abortion, especially at home, are exposed to bacterial infections and septicemia that can result in death. Moreover, abortion can result in long time complications in the mother’s life, such increased risk of miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies in the future due to a weakened uterine wall. Diseases such as pelvic inflammatory diseases are also associated with abortion, resulting in other health complications (Tatalovich, 2019). Even though individuals argue that legal abortion has fewer risks and effects on a woman’s health, the side effects are more gruesome than the advantages; therefore, abortion should be illegalized.

It is argued that women have the right to choose “my body, my choice,” and abortion is better than carrying an unwanted or neglected child. However, this argument does not consider the life of the woman and the unborn child. Even though women have the right to make their decisions, no human being has the right to terminate human life (Tatalovich, 2019). Abortion, therefore, conflicts with the unalienable rights of the fetus. If the child is neglected, such parents should be jailed for violating children’s rights. Having the right to make decisions and child neglect do not hold a stand to terminate life.

People propose that abortion relieves the woman to continue with her life and live up to her choices. However, abortion does not offer peace of mind to a woman. Statistics show that approximately 59% of the women who commit abortion are susceptible to depression, stress, and suicidal thoughts. In addition, 61% of the total woman have increased chances of mood disorders and social anxiety. At the same time, a larger percentage is predisposed to drug and substance abuse due to stress and depression (Mattalucci & De Zordo, 2022). Since abortion is detrimental both to the pregnant mother and the fetus, the practice should be prohibited globally. Using birth control measures can help one escape from the abortion crisis. For example, birth control pills and family planning are measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies among youths. No one has the right to terminate life; it is murder, and serious actions should be taken against such individuals (Maurya, 2021). However, in very few situations should the practice be legalized; for example, in case the health of the pregnant mother is at risk, medical abortion can be done. For example, mothers with preeclampsia are highly predisposed to placental rupture, which can result in organ failure; in such cases, medical abortion should be allowed.


Abortion is morally wrong. It contradicts the laws of nature and the right to life. Moreover, the practice greatly affects the pregnant woman, including infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, stress and depression, and indulging in drug and substance abuse. Due to these reasons, it is everyone’s encouragement and bid to fight against abortion, prohibit the practice, and save lives.


Blackshaw, B. P., & Rodger, D. (2019). The problem of spontaneous abortion: is the pro-life position morally monstrous?. The new bioethics25(2), 103-120. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20502877.2019.1602376

Mattalucci, C., & De Zordo, S. (2022). Demographic Anxiety and Abortion: Italian Pro-Life Volunteers’ and Gynecologists’ Perspectives. Medical Anthropology, 1-15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01459740.2022.2087181

Maurya, B. R. (2021). A state-of-the-art review on the impacts of abortion. ACADEMICIA: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal11(12), 662-668. https://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:aca&volume=11&issue=12&article=104

Tatalovich, R. (2019). Abortion: Prochoice Versus Pro-life. In Social Regulatory Policy (pp. 177-209). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429306358-7/abortion-raymond-tatalovich

Domestic Violence and Abuse


In contemporary society, domestic abuse has been highlighted as one of the most sensitive and consequential forms of abuse and topic in society. This element has resulted in multiple parties in society involving themselves in various efforts that concentrate on this issue. Different parties have also highlighted multiple concerns regarding domestic violence; thus, the participation of different individuals in society has made domestic violence a highly sensitive and engaging topic in contemporary society. This type of participation has influenced different institutions under the government and private sector to eliminate these issues in society actively. Collaboration has been identified as one of the most crucial and much-needed additions to eliminate domestic violence in society. There exist multiple perspectives and evidence that effectively construct domestic violence as one of the most consequential social vices considering the sequential events initiated by this vice. Multiple elements construct domestic violence in the respective society, thus ensuring that different parties implement diverse approaches to eliminating domestic violence. Gender has been identified as one of the most consequential elements that construct domestic violence; hence the need to be conscious of gender factors that are likely to impact any effort to eliminate domestic violence. This factor is characterized by the statics that 75% of victims of domestic violence identified as female hence the need for different shareholders interested in domestic violence to be conscious of this factor. Considering the multiple opportunities that exist for different institutions to play a role in eliminating domestic violence, Victim Support is easily identified as one of the best illustrations of organizations driven by the need to eliminate domestic violence in society. This report is centralized around victim support as an organization and its role in influencing different policies and perspectives of the organization, including conclusions on various hypotheses related to domestic violence.

Aims and objectives of Victim Support

Service Provision

Victim Support has implemented multiple perspectives as an organization, thus ensuring that they are inclusive of different opinions, arguments, and shareholders who actively participate in eliminating domestic violence. The organization’s perspective on domestic violence is influenced by what is determined by the law, thus ensuring that its interests and objectives are within various legal lines. His element ensures that the organization’s strategy can be implemented nationally and internationally. Victim support provides various services to various victims of domestic violence in England and Wales, thus ensuring that its approach is highly efficient in eliminating the social issues in the respective regions. Victim Support has provided easy access to over 100 IDVAs who make it easier to tap into different populations and regions in Wales and England. The experts involved with the organization are subject to multiple standards, which increase the efficiency and sequential flow of various efforts and strategies implemented by the organization. The organization creates the best environment for reporting and helping the victims of domestic abuse by providing privacy, experts, and key services that previous studies have identified as crucial to eliminating domestic abuse (Alex et al. 2017, 10). Impediment domestic violence advisors provide a highly targeted approach to the victim by ensuring that the victim and their family are the focal points of any decision and strategy implemented by the experts and the organization.

Victim Support is dedicated to providing domestic abuse victims with links to various experts who have extensive knowledge of dealing with domestic abuse. By acting as a link between the victims and other experts, the organization establishes a highly effective environment for reporting and eliminating domestic violence in society. Multiple studies have found that victims of domestic abuse are more likely to feel comfortable talking to an IDVA than other parties like the police and experts from social care. IDVAs ensure that the victim’s needs are always centralized in any discussion, decision, and strategy implemented to help the victim deal with the issue. This element characterizes the Victim support strategy as the link between the victim and other parties like housing services, the police, civil and criminal courts, probation services, mental health support, and benefits advice.

Victim Support Policy Research

Victim Support provides a key understanding and approach to domestic violence. It offers in-depth construction of elements that could be key in making policies relevant to the social issue. It is key to highlight that the police underplay domestic violence; hence the organization’s perspective focuses on increasing police response to domestic violence. Promoting increased communication and publicity efforts around domestic abuse is one of the major strategies that the organization seeks to achieve. The organization characterizes communication and publicity as crucial to constructing policies that could impact the contemporary trends of domestic abuse in England and Wales. The organization has the objective of ensuring that policies that have already been implemented and proven efficient in both England and Wales should be implemented collectively in the region. Adopting an already proven strategy is a major objective of the organization as it seeks to diversify the strategies and policies formulated concerning the issue of domestic abuse. Considering the organization’s access to the data that characterize the domestic abuse situation in wales and England, it provides a detailed analysis and solution to the relationship between the police and IDVAs (Alex et al. 2017, 10). Studies have highlighted the gender of the police and IDVA is key in ensuring that various parties feel free and comfortable in providing details associated with the case. The policy research approach taken by the organization is characterized by the need to be evidence-driven, as highlighted by the need to centralize the victim in shaping its decisions and strategies related to policies and resource distribution among the victim population. The court system is one of the less targeted parts of the criminal and justice system, considering that the issue of delivering a verdict drives it, and this eclipses the need to centralize the victim’s needs in the court process. This element has made the organization promote various changes to the steps of the court process. This is effectively demonstrated by the need to have separate rooms, experts, and court divisions focused on the victim and ensuring the victims are not subject to the normal court processes known to expose the victim to various issues and environments.


The organization is heavily invested in campaigning for the need to eliminate various barriers to accessing the criminal justice system. One of the major campaigns for the organization is to reform the police department’s approach to the issue of domestic abuse. The police are one of the major shareholders closely linked with efforts to eliminate domestic abuse in England and Wales. This element has resulted in the organization’s campaign to ensure those police officers in the region are trained n different aspects of domestic abuse. By promoting police reform, the organization ensures that the department is conscious of the impact of various factors like gender on the process and the likely result of a case involving domestic abuse. Extensive collaboration among the players in the criminal justice system is another huge campaign pushed by the organization. Collaboration ensures that insights made by some party like the police could sequentially be inherited by other parties, thus ensuring that they are conscious of various needs surrounding the case. The information acquired by the police could help courts understand the best method to conduct a domestic abuse case while protecting the victim from various triggers, both physical and mental.

Social problems

Multiple factors influence the behavior of a victim of domestic abuse. These factors can be beneficial and consequential for the justice process. The organization and other studies have highlighted different barriers to the justice process for the victims of domestic abuse. This is captured by the data considering that 79% of victims do not report their experiences to the relevant authority.

It is also highly concerning for the refugee population since only one in five women report their experiences, especially in a situation where they have dealt with the perpetrator before. Concerns associated with the perpetrator are a major deterrence for reporting the crime. Many concerns are shared by the victims of domestic abuse regarding the perpetrator since many feel the perpetrator is already in a position of advantage, thus undermining the legal process. Man victims identify fear of further violence from the perpetrator since they may be intimidated by various personal factors associated with the perpetrator. The perpetrator may have financial, social, and moral authority advantage over the victim; thus, many are intimidated from reporting the crime (Alex et al. 2017, 8). Victims feel that approaching the police would put them in more danger than helping the situation. There also exist social and cultural barriers that have been established over long periods in human history. Issues like patriarchal societies make it hard to report domestic abuse since some societies may have normalized domestic abuse as part of the relationship. These barriers limit the efforts of various parties as per making sure the victims use the cases provided to report domestic abuse. Living in a community with a high rate of domestic abuse reduces the victim’s probability of reporting the crime. Concerns for the children also deter many victims from reporting domestic abuse to the relevant authority (Alex et al. 2017, 11).

Many victims feel that reporting domestic abuse exposes their children to various social and legal elements. Children are likely to be introduced to social services, which has had a bad reputation among the population in both England and wales. The care for the children forces many to forego reporting the crime as many feel the process may have a mental and physical toll on the children. Housing and finance after reporting the crime also play a role in downplaying reporting the crime since these social problems formulate the future of the victim and their family. Housing and finance are key problems that determine the socioeconomic level of a person and thus are a huge concern for the organization’s objectives (Alex et al. 2017, 12).

The efficiency of the police and the CJS is another major social problem to the objectives highlighted by the organization. The contemporary state of the CJS limits the organization’s ability to achieve its objectives. This is because many people do not trust the system due to its limitation in centralizing the concerns and needs of the victim.

Argument and findings

Despite the low reporting rates for the victims of domestic abuse, the origination’s research found that there exist different factors that may push the victim to report the crime. The finding backs this argument that victims are likely to report the crime if they or their children are in immediate danger. Feeling threatened or watching the children feeling threatened was identified as an incentive to report the perpetrator. Personal and children’s safety is of key importance to different societal parties, hence the influence of reporting the crime. Social and expert support has also been identified as a huge incentive to report domestic abuse. The presence of family, domestic abuse advocates, and IDVAs increases the victim’s chances of opening up about the crime, thus increasing the probability of reporting the crime. How the police educate themselves is also highly impactful on how the victim understands the importance of reporting domestic abuse (Alex et al. 2017, 25).

Despite the timely arrival, there is a presence of evidence that suggests that the police need to be more empathetic towards the victims. Empathy is key in dealing with victims of domestic abuse, and considering the police are among the first responders, their traits are of key concern to the victims.

This financing is also closely related to the need for police officers to transfer information and the case to the appropriate support services. Many victims have identified referrals to support services as crucial to getting justice after experiencing domestic abuse. Implementation of better commination is another major need identified with domestic abuse. Different parties have identified better communication as vital to ensuring that different experts efficiently deal with domestic abuse victim.

The findings also demonstrate the need to make various improvements in criminal courts. Pretrial contact with the perpetrator increases the victim’s anxiety and fear, which greatly impacts how they conduct themselves during the next processes. Cross-examination is another issue victims identified as causing a huge emotional toll on them. Victims also highlighted the need for special measures that may trigger various factors associated with the case (Alex et al. 2017, 27). In the courts, there is a need to implement a special measure that makes the victim comfortable as they actively participate in the court proceedings. Measurers like putting up curtains help increase the victim’s confidence and the probability of stating various influential acts. Victims and experts also identify support from domestic abuse advocates as crucial to acquiring justice for the victim of domestic violence.


Alex, M, Ania, M, and Thea, F 2017, ‘Survivor’s Justice,’ How Victims And Survivors Of Domestic Abuse Experiences The Criminal Justice System, pp. 1-39.