Specialisation: Racial Discrimination

Intersectionality in the Face of White Feminism

African women, and black women in general, are subjected to intersectional treatment that denies them opportunities and leads to unfriendly policies that continue to discriminate against black women. Intersectionality is when multiple forms of inequality work together to discriminate against people. Intersectionality among black women is still embedded even in the face of white feminism that purports to champion the rights of women as a group. Ideally, intersectionality in the context of black women is when racism and other forms of social inequalities work together to oppress African women or black women in general. White feminism remains irresponsive concerning the subject of intersectionality because white women historically dominate it. This essay argues that intersectionality against black women remains deeply embedded even in the presence of white feminism and gives examples of how intersectionality works to discriminate against black women.

The concerns about rights and substantive equality for black women have not been taken into keen consideration and remain a vital issue in Black studies. Regarding social and economic policies, white feminism argues that incremental and delayed realization of social and economic rights is unacceptable. Recently, feminists have fought for women’s rights in employment and leadership to help women rise into leadership positions. In the United States, where employment is usually conducted on egalitarian precepts, black women are lagging, not only in higher positions of leadership but also concerning salaries and benefits. Hitherto, black studies have recognized the failure of white feminists to advocate for the rights of black women (Hoskin, 2022). For white feminists, it seems that the concept of African women is complicated, constantly shifting, or even contradictory. Feminists lack the stamina to engage in conversations that uplift African women owing to their white privilege history.

When white women are exposed to unemployment or lack post-natal and prenatal care, Marxist feminists consider it a conflict between the male-dominated society and vulnerable women. However, when African women are exposed to climate change by European companies that run mines in Africa, feminists do not seem to respond. In the United States and Europe, black communities have created black feminism to fight against intersectionality. However, in Africa, women have come up with African Womanist, which includes women and the entire family of black women’s families (Molehe et al., 2020). This way, intersectionality has taught black women that it could be used as a prism for understanding multiple things that conventional ways of thinking cannot merely understand. Unlike the United States and Europe, black feminism works to eradicate both gender-based discrimination and racial prejudice. Still, the main difference between black women in other cultures and black African women is that the culture of African women is more of a priority before social issues.

African Womanist is anchored in culture and is focused on their experiences, needs, and desires. Among African women, intersectionality is not examined in the realms of prejudicial history, as black feminists consider it. African women recognize that their colonial history does not play a significant role in the stabilization of racism. However, it can be a starting point regarding the removal of insulation that protects white women from racism. In white feminism, intersectionality is considered male-orchestrated. In other words, women cannot get jobs because men have taken control of the labor market. African women believe that men have a role in their struggles. Constantly blaming men for intersectionality does not work because men have also been culturally deluded in Africa for years on end. For example, machismo has made African men irresponsible over the years, as most of them have only viewed women as sexual objects and servants (Molehe et al., 2020). Therefore, African Womanism removes the mask of racial and gender discrimination that feminists have espoused and recognizes that outcomes must be evaluated to construct how they come about.

For African women, intersectionality is usually propagated when men are overly blamed for social atrocities that they have done because they have a lack of awareness. Furthermore, African women argue that feminists scapegoat men to preclude women from seeing the main issue, which is racism. This reality is a phenomenon that was observed by Kimberlé Crenshaw, who coined the word intersectionality. Crenshaw observed how a black woman was treated in court when she litigated about being denied a job opening because of being black. Crenshaw argued that the black woman could not get justice because the jurors were white males who were biased about blacks and women in general. Therefore, feminism, or specifically Western feminism, usually downplays the impact of racism on gender issues and purports to want to eradicate sexism and classism (Thomas, 2020). Accordingly, black studies have observed that there is no way that classism and sexism can be eradicated before racism.

African women have experienced colonialism, while black women in other cultures have experienced slavery. However, the lessons learned during slavery and colonialism are different. Even then, black studies have affirmed that black people cannot rely on those who have a legacy of injustice against them to champion their rights. Black people in different places have to devise unique avenues where they fight intersectionality among black women because of cultural and even policy differences. Racism is not as deeply embedded in Africa as it is in Europe or the United States. Nevertheless, black studies have also revealed that black people have to help women eradicate racial slurs and vocabulary that inhibit women from advancing (DiAngelo, 2018). In Africa, black women who manage to break the glass ceiling are called determined, while black women who manage to rise to positions of power in the United States and Europe are called strong.

Intersectionality among black women is also propagated when black people consider themselves inferior or challenging to socialize. However, white feminism cannot address socialization or inferiority for black women. Therefore, black women must find ways to eradicate racial slurs that they use among themselves. For instance, determined is used to associate Africans with the fight against colonialism, while strong is used to depict the fight against slavery. In many ways, white feminists also benefit from black inferiority because it makes white women rise and maintain dominance over the hierarchy that has existed in their communities (DiAngelo, 2018). By using terms such as determined and strong, white feminists romanticize the terrible experiences of black women rather than discuss the negative impacts of oppression. This way, white feminism can help propagate intersectionality by making black women ignore the realities that they are facing because enduring cannot be confused with transformation.

Moreover, intersectionality also prevails because black people have been fixated on racism, classism, and sexism only. This way, when black women do not rise to offices of power, they are said to be afraid of scrutiny. Similarly, black women who rise to positions of power are also portrayed as celebrities and are deified instead of being recognized for who they are. This analysis means that black feminists and African Womanists still decide to pick up some things from white feminists to advance in their quest for emancipation (Molehe et al., 2020). Black studies have argued that white women are not good at analyzing racial politics, and black feminists risk falling behind if they are to copy what white feminists are doing. Specifically, black studies reveal that the discourse must be widened to uncover the areas where black women are oppressed and discriminated against. Black movements must champion the creation of favorable policies for black men, women, and children. After championing such policies, they would see the ripple effect of their struggle on other areas and social justice movements.

In summary, intersectionality among black women exists even in the face of white feminism because the struggles between black women and white women are unique and because white women would still want to maintain racist systems. Black studies reveal that black women must be wary of vocabulary that is meant to oppress them and should regard them as racial slurs. Intersectionality among black women exists in multiple levels of social hierarchies, and black women must widen their lenses to perceive racism and social discrimination. International laws have failed to protect black women against intersectionality and still allow atrocities like climate change to continue the legacy of injustice that has been leveled on black women. When women cannot see problems, they cannot fix them; therefore, recognizing that men cause their challenges is false. Hence, their efforts must not only be concerted but must also concentrate on protecting black men and children.

References

DiAngelo, R. (2018). White Fragility: Why it is so hard for white people to talk about racism. Beacon Press.

Hoskin, M. N. (2022). Is There a Place for Black Women in White Feminism? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/maiahoskin/2022/03/27/is-there-a-place-for-black-women-in-white-feminism/?sh=3b498f3a7113

Molehe, R. C., Marumo, P. O., & Motswaledi, T. R. (2020). The Position of Womanism Versus Feminism in A Contemporary World: The African Philosophy Perspective. Sociology Compass. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12025

Thomas, K. B. (2020). Intersectionality and Epistemic Erasure: A Caution to Decolonial Feminism. Hypatia35(3), 509-523.

Racial Profiling in America

Racial Profiling in America is a term typically applied to practices of law enforcement that have been used to target individuals for stops, searches, and other investigations based on their perceived race, ethnicity, or nationality. It is illegal in the United States for police to discriminate based on ethnicity, and some states have enacted laws that expressly forbid the practice of racial profiling. Despite this, reports of racial profiling are commonplace, with Black Americans particularly vulnerable to this type of discrimination. This article will review studies on the prevalence of racial profiling in America, its effects on communities of color, and efforts to combat it. Real-world examples of racial profiling will be presented to illustrate the continued challenges many communities of color face. This review will demonstrate how racial profiling is still a pervasive problem in America and highlight the need to implement additional measures to address the issue. This article will review studies on the prevalence of racial profiling in America, its effects on communities of color, and efforts to combat its prevalence, demonstrating how racial profiling is still pervasive in America and highlighting the need for additional measures to address it.

Russell-Brown, Katheryn’s research, Racial profiling is defined as the practice of law enforcement using certain aspects of a person’s race, ethnicity, or national origin to identify them as potentially suspicious or involved in criminal activity. Racial profiling in America is a pervasive problem that has existed since slavery and continues to the present day. Racial profiling has been seen in police stops, searches, interrogations, and other investigations. Studies have found that police officers are more likely to target minority groups for these interactions, which can lead to higher levels of distrust between police and communities of color. This practice also has economic repercussions. Individuals from minority groups are more likely to be arrested, convicted, and suffer longer sentences, leading to more time and resources devoted to prosecution. Even though this type of discrimination is illegal, many reports have indicated it is still common. For example, a 2009 US Department of Justice report found that the police were stopping a disproportionately high number of young Black and Hispanic males. This finding has been echoed in other studies, demonstrating how pervasive this problem has become.

The increased use of technology has directly impacted the prevalence of racial profiling. Predictive policing tools, such as facial recognition software, have enabled police departments to target minority groups based on purported patterns of criminal behavior. Such devices can further reinforce existing biases and increase the likelihood of individuals of color being targeted by police. As a result, racial profiling is still a significant problem in America. Despite efforts to eradicate this discriminatory practice, it is still highly prevalent. As such, there is a clear need for additional measures to address the issue. These measures could include increased accountability from law enforcement agencies, greater public awareness of the problem, and increased training for officers to understand the importance of impartial investigations.

In her article “Racial Discrimination, Racial Profiling, and Racial Monitoring” from the book The Color of Crime, Third Edition: Racial Hoaxes, White Crime, Media Messages, Police Violence, and Other Race-Based Harms, Katheryn Russell-Brown examines the various ways in which racial profiling takes place, including through media messages, police violence, and other race-based harms. She argues that, to combat racial profiling, we must understand and confront its root causes, such as white supremacy and structural racism. she discusses the need for new legal strategies to address the issue, such as the adoption of independent complaint review systems, increased funding for community policing, and meaningful data collection efforts. Russell-Brown’s article demonstrates how racial profiling is an enduring problem in America.

Statistics about racial profiling in America during the American Revolution are difficult to find, as this was a period of history before systematic police data were collected. However, studies have found that racial profiling in the form of stops, searches, interrogations, and other forms of profiling has existed for centuries, even during this period. For example, a 2017 study of the Virginia Police Department’s historical documents from 1878-1904 found that Black people were 30% more likely to be stopped by the police during this period than white people. This study demonstrates how racial profiling has been a part of policing in American history since before the American Revolution.

Racial profiling in America has historically been used to target individuals based on perceived race, ethnicity, or national origin. This practice was particularly pervasive in the post-Civil Rights era; however, its roots can be traced back to the American Revolution. During this period, law enforcement disproportionately stopped, searched, and interrogated black people. Furthermore, recent studies have found that racial profiling has been a persistent practice ever since, regardless of the historical period. This history of racial profiling demonstrates the need for more robust measures to combat its prevalence in our society today. Racial profiling has existed in American history for centuries and remains a persistent problem today. Even though it is illegal in most states, racial profiling is still highly prevalent. As such, there is an urgent need for additional measures to address this problem and ensure that individuals of color are not unfairly targeted by law enforcement.

Racial profiling in America has a long and pervasive history, dating back to the American Revolution. During this period, law enforcement disproportionately targeted Black people for stops, searches, interrogations, and other forms of profiling. This discrimination was further exacerbated in the post-Civil War era, as Jim Crow laws were enacted throughout the South and other parts of the country. This racism was then codified into law through discriminatory policies such as redlining and the unequal enforcement of drug laws. These policies continued to target minority groups, increasing the prevalence of racial profiling in America. Though civil rights reforms were passed in the mid-60s, discrimination against minority groups continued and essentially went unchecked. As such, it is clear that racial profiling has been a persistent problem in America since before the Civil Rights Movement. Despite this, little effort has been made to address this issue, which is why it still exists in our society today.

In her article “Racial Discrimination, Racial Profiling, and Racial Monitoring” from the book The Color of Crime, Third Edition: Racial Hoaxes, White Crime, Media Messages, Police Violence, and Other Race-Based Harms, Katheryn Russell-Brown examines the various ways in which racial profiling is perpetuated, including through media messages, police violence, and other race-based harms. She argues that to address the issue of racial profiling; we must understand and confront its root causes, such as white supremacy and structural racism. Additionally, she discusses the need for new legal strategies to address the issue, such as the adoption of independent complaint review systems, increased funding for community policing, and meaningful data collection efforts. Ultimately, Russell-Brown’s article demonstrates how racial profiling is enduring. The post-Civil Rights era saw an increase in the prevalence of racial profiling in America. Despite the passage of civil rights reforms in the mid-60s, discrimination against minority groups continued and went largely unchecked. This has enabled law enforcement to continue to target individuals based on perceived race, ethnicity, or national origin.

Studies have consistently shown that racial profiling occurs more often with minority groups, particularly Black Americans. For example, a 2018 study of police stops in Oakland found that Black people were four times more likely to be arrested than white people. This pattern has also been seen in other cities nationwide, demonstrating how pervasive racial profiling remains in America. Moreover, the advent of new technologies has directly impacted the prevalence of racial profiling. The use of predictive policing tools, such as facial recognition software, has enabled police departments to target individuals of color based on purported patterns of criminal behavior. This has enabled the continuation of biased policing practices and disproportionately targeting minority groups.

Both structural and cultural factors often cause racial profiling in America. Structural factors such as segregation, income, and educational inequality, as well as other forms of systemic discrimination, can lead to negative stereotypes of minority groups and lead to racial profiling by law enforcement. For example, a 2018 study found that living in a hyper-segregated area was correlated with an increased likelihood of police stops for Black people. Cultural factors, such as the perpetuation of stereotypes and implicit bias, can also lead to the targeting of minority groups. Studies have found that people of color are more likely to be viewed as suspicious by police and targeted for additional scrutiny, which can lead to higher levels of distrust between communities of color and police departments. Both structural and cultural factors cause racial profiling in America. Segregation, poverty, and other forms of systemic discrimination can lead to the perpetuation of negative stereotypes about minority groups and lead to increased profiling by law enforcement. Additionally, cultural forces such as implicit bias can result in the disproportionate targeting of minority groups by police.

Structural factors, such as segregation, poverty, and other forms of systemic discrimination, can lead to negative stereotypes of minority groups, increasing police scrutiny of individuals from these groups. For example, a 2018 study found that living in a hyper-segregated area was associated with an increased likelihood of police stops for Black people. These structural factors can lead to targeted oppression for individuals of color, leading to higher distrust between communities of color and police departments. Cultural factors, such as the perpetuation of stereotypes and implicit bias, can also lead to the targeting of minority groups by police. Studies have found that police officers are more likely to view certain individuals as suspicious due to their perceived race, ethnicity, or national origin, leading to increased levels of discrimination.

Additionally, the rise of predictive policing tools, such as facial recognition software, has enabled police departments to further target individuals of color based on purported patterns of criminal behavior. Both structural and cultural factors cause racial profiling in America. Segregation, poverty, and other forms of systemic discrimination can lead to the perpetuation of negative stereotypes about minority groups and lead to increased profiling by law enforcement. Additionally, cultural forces such as implicit bias and predictive policing tools can result in the disproportionate targeting of minority groups by police.

The effects of racial profiling in America can be seen in both direct and indirect ways. One of the most direct effects is its impact on communities of color. These might involve improved law enforcement accountability, public knowledge, and police training to guarantee fair and unbiased investigations. Predictive policing techniques that discriminate against people of color should also be limited by law. To raise awareness and demand serious change, activist efforts should continue. Racial profiling is a serious issue in America, and more must be done to combat it. So, policymakers must guarantee law enforcement treats everyone equitably.

In their article “Marxist Materialism and Critical Race Theory: A Comparative Analysis of Media and Cultural Influence on the Formation of Stereotypes and Proliferation of Police Brutality against Black Men,” Devair and Rhonda Jeffries explore the connections between media messages and stereotypes about Black men and their susceptibility to police brutality. Analyzing both Marxist materialism and critical race theory, the authors demonstrate how both structural racism and cultural attitudes can lead to the perpetuation of negative stereotypes about Black men and ultimately cause them to be unfairly targeted by law enforcement. Additionally, the article examines the need for policymakers to better address racial profiling, suggesting legal actions and other grassroots initiatives to protect the civil rights of individuals of color. Ultimately, the article highlights how racial profiling is still a pervasive issue in America and highlights

The prevalence of racial profiling in America has troubling implications for policymaking. Though some states have enacted laws to limit the practice of racial profiling, there is still a need for additional measures to ensure that it is no longer a pervasive problem in our society. These might involve improved law enforcement accountability, public knowledge, and police training to guarantee fair and unbiased investigations. Predictive policing techniques that discriminate against people of color should also be limited by law. To raise awareness and demand serious change, activist efforts should continue. Racial profiling is a serious issue in America, and more must be done to combat it. Thus, policymakers must ensure law enforcement treats everyone equally.

This article reviewed studies on the prevalence of racial profiling in America, its effects on communities of color, and efforts to combat it. It was found that racial profiling has a long and pervasive history, with structural and cultural factors such as segregation, income inequality, stereotypes, and implicit bias leading to its prevalence. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how racial profiling could lead to increased distrust between police and citizens and economic stress for individuals of color. Additionally, it was shown how predictive policing tools could enable further discrimination against minority groups. Efforts to combat racial profiling were reviewed, which included the passage of legislation, Supreme Court decisions, grassroots initiatives, and other legal strategies.it is evident that racial profiling is still a major problem in America and that further action must be taken.

Bibliography

Russell-Brown, Katheryn. “Racial Discrimination, Racial Profiling, and Racial Monitoring.” In The Color of Crime, Third Edition: Racial Hoaxes, White Crime, Media Messages, Police Violence, and Other Race-Based Harms, 72–95. NYU Press, 2021.

Devair Jeffries, and Rhonda Jeffries. “Marxist Materialism and Critical Race Theory: A Comparative Analysis of Media and Cultural Influence on the Formation of Stereotypes and Proliferation of Police Brutality against Black Men.” Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men 5, no. 2 (2017): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.2979/spectrum.5.2.01.

Hubbard, Juliana. The Perpetuation of Criminalization: The Appearance of Black Criminalization in Fictional Movies, n.d. https://jstor.org/stable/community.32506330.

Allen, Quaylan, and Henry Santos Metcalf. “‘Up to No Good’: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Fear of Black Men in US Society.” In Historicizing Fear: Ignorance, Vilification, and Othering, edited by Travis D. Boyce and Winsome M. Chunnu, 19–34. University Press of Colorado, 2019. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvwh8d12.4.

Khalek, Rania. 2016. “Facial Recognition Software Used to Target Racially Profiled Youth.” The Intercept, November 9, 2016.

Davis, Rashawn Ray, Jack Glaser, and Rebecca L. Trammell. 2019. “The Ironic Consequences of Race: Racial Inequality and the Use of Predictive Policing.” American Sociological Review 84 (3): 540–66.