Specialisation: Nursing

Addressing Drug and Alcohol Use Addiction in the Healthcare Setting

Treating Drug and Alcohol Use Addiction in the Healthcare Setting

Drug and alcohol use problem is a perennial issue that has plagued the US healthcare system for decades. Notable cultural phenomena such as perverse drinking that led to Prohibition in the 1920s and the Crack Epidemic in the 1980s are just some of the events that emphasize the drug and alcohol abuse problem in the US. According to the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), over 221 million people (or 84% of the population) in the US aged twelve years and older reported that they had used alcohol at some point in their lifetime (NIAAA, 2023). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics (NCDAS) (2024) estimate that about half of US residents aged twelve and older have used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime, About one million deaths have been recorded since 2000, costing the federal government about $35 billion in control. America Addiction Centers (AAC) also notes that marijuana, cocaine, LSD, and alcohol are the most abused drugs and that 19.7 million (38% of adults) users of these substances are battling with substance use disorder. AAC also noted that 74% of users with substance use disorders are also struggling with alcohol addiction. These statistics affirm that the issue of drug and alcohol use is not new, is prevalent, and is a national health issue. The billions channeled at addressing the problem have been utilized by various drug and alcohol intervention programs to a considerable degree of success. This essay will review the current literature on co-occurring drug and alcohol use, evidence-based interventions that have been employed to address the problem, and Healthy People 2030 objectives on the issue while inspecting nursing care plans for intervention.

Overview of Literature

Scholarly interest in understanding the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use (AOD) disorders and devising treatment approaches have revealed various findings that confirm the necessity and effectiveness of interventions. AOD is prevalent among older people (Searby et al., 2016) and a problem among younger people (Patrick et al., 2017; Ansari & Salam, 2021). Cognitive behavioral therapy is highlighted as one of the effective evidence-based interventions for addressing the issue (Chiang et al., 2017; Mehta et al., 2021), while pharmacotherapy has been highlighted as a complementary approach to addressing it (Li, 2023).

AOD use is a problem among older people, which mandates prompt intervention. Searby et al. (2016) conducted a two-year study with 593 participants from 2012 to 2014 to determine this. The study found that dual diagnosis for AOD and mental health issues was common and presented a significant challenge in addressing either of the problems. The study further noted that patients with dual diagnosis were more likely to have substandard treatment outcomes and higher rates of psychiatric relapse. Treating mental health illness and drugs and substance abuse was also costly, and patients had poorer treatment engagement with their care providers. The study also highlighted inadequate screening procedures to assess the extent of AOD and mental health to form targeted and responsive interventions. This study’s findings affirm that AOD is a global health issue, and that is poorly understood, leading to weaker interventions to address it.

AOD use is a problem that also affects younger people. The study by Patrick et al. (2017), in a study funded by the NIAAA, examined the patterns of co-use (concurrent and simultaneous) of alcohol and marijuana among adolescents in the US. The scholars drew 12th-grade statistics and data from the Monitoring the Future study conducted between 1976 and 2016 to determine the prevalence of simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM). The study found that 56.4% of 12th-grade alcohol users were also likely to use marijuana. Similarly, SAM use was found to be associated with high levels of truancy, violence, evening outs, and the use of alcohol alongside other illicit drugs other than marijuana. Heavy SAM use was also found to be more likely to be associated with male students compared with their female counterparts. These observations are congruent with the statistics highlighted by the AAC (2024) and CDC (2023) that show that men are more likely to be heavy alcohol users compared to women. The findings by Patrick et al. recognize that AOD is a public health risk that affects not only older but also adolescents. The co-occurring use of alcohol and other substances has also been found by studies such as that of tobacco and alcohol, as confirmed by Ansari and Salam (2021), which focused on patterns of use in Finland universities. These studies emphasize the necessity to direct intervention measures towards adolescents and young adults who are potential high-risk lifetime users.

Current Evidenced-based Based Interventions

Cognitive behavioral interventions (CBT) have been highlighted as one of the most effective therapeutic interventions for treating AOD use. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has found great relevance in the treatment and management of AOD use. Various studies have been conducted on the therapeutic process and efficacy of the process in preventing relapse, with varying results. Chiang et al. (2017) and Mehta et al. (2021) elaborated that CBT works through psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, and enhancement of coping skills. Psychoeducation is the critical first step in the treatment process. In psychoeducation, CBT helps individuals with AOD use to understand the nature of their problem and recognize their triggers. It also emphasizes the essence of adherence to the medication regimen and helps the patients recognize the early warning signs of mood variations (Li, 2023). This process is integral in functional analysis, the second step in the treatment process.

According to Ye et al. (2016), functional analysis in CBT helps clients understand the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences of substance use. This approach allows the patients to gain insight into the factors that contribute to their substance use and develop alternative, healthier behaviors. It manages moods by tracking fluctuations, observing sleep patterns, and vibrant life events. Functional analysis works simultaneously with cognitive restructuring, challenging one’s negative thought patterns that have been recognized to be associated with addiction (Chiang et al., 2017). Through techniques of cognitive dissonance, Chiang et al. (2017) state that patients can learn to recognize and reframe their attitudes toward drugs. CBT continues with learning new behavioral strategies for overcoming addiction. According to Li (2023), pharmacological options such as naltrexone, disulfiram, acamprosate, and combination treatment should be adopted to complement talk therapy. While CBT has been proven to be a suitable evidence-based intervention, Searby et al. (2016) and Chiang et al. (2017) affirm that high relapse rates characterize interventions for AOD use. Intervening therapists should, therefore, ensure that the structured care plan considers the patient’s specific drug problem and is also effective in addressing alcohol addiction.

Nursing Care Plan

Case scenario: Jane is a 32-year-old White Caucasian woman. On June 17, 2023, at about 1900, her sister, Daisy, brought Jane to the emergency department. Daisy reported that Jane has had a severe simultaneous use of marijuana and alcohol that started when she was on campus, slowed after her graduation, but became more pronounced a year ago. Daisy reported that Jane has also had significantly noticeable changes in her behavior. Jane is 5’8” and weighs 120 pounds. She confirms to have lost 20 pounds in the last three months. Her vital signs are: O2 is 98% on room air, BP is 120/82 mmHg, P is 92 bpm, RR is 18 bpm, and oral temperature is 99.0 degrees Fahrenheit. She states that her back pain is 3/10 due to a persistent headache. Her BMI is calculated at 18.2. When questioned about her daily activities, Jane says: “I have lost interest in almost everything I used to enjoy on campus with friends. Nowadays, I prefer to stay at home and get high and drunk and numb everything.” On her mental wellness, Jane admits that she experiences overwhelming sadness, anxiety, and, sometimes, a sense of hopelessness. She acknowledges that her substance and alcohol use made her lose her job, and she has not been able to work for the past ten months. She says that alcohol and marijuana help her cope. Daisy says that Jane has rejected all treatment attempts, but Jane says that now she is willing to give it a try. She says: “I know I need to cut down or stop, but every time I try, I feel even worse. What can I do to break free from this cycle? I want to find a way to feel better without relying on substances.”


Subjective Data Objective Data
The patient is malnourished and anxious. The patient says: “I have lost interest in almost everything I used to enjoy.”
The patient is 32 years old, 5’8”, and only 120 pounds with a BMI of 18.2 (underweight) Patient says that getting drunk and high numbs everything
Oxygen saturation at 98% on room air, respiration rate is 22 bpm Patient says that only marijuana and alcohol can make her cope
Oral temperature is at 99.0 degrees Fahrenheit, and Blood pressure She states back pain is 3/10 due to a persistent headache (mild pain)
120/82 mmHg, P is 92 bpm. No prior diagnosis of AOD use disorder The patient says: “I know I need to cut down or stop, but every time I try, I feel even worse. She admits helplessness in overcoming addiction.

Analysis, Planning, and Implementation

Actual Nursing Diagnosis: Imbalanced body nutrition, which is less than the body requirements related to her depression, as evidenced by being underweight and comments such as “I have lost interest in everything.”

SMART Goal: By December 30, 2023, the client will demonstrate knowledge of high-calorie foods, be able to identify healthy nutritional meals, meet her dietary requirements, and gain ten pounds.

Intervention#1: Obtain baseline laboratory tests, including serum albumin, transferrin, and a complete blood count, to identify malnourishment and establish a nutritional baseline.

Rationale: Baseline data is essential to track the nutritional development of the patient. Serum albumin, if low, will confirm malnutrition. Blood count levels will reveal the number of hemoglobin and other abnormalities (Taylor et al., 2019). Intervention #2: Discuss food preferences, offer encouragement, and ensure visually appealing food presentation to stimulate demand for food. Rationale: Engaging the patient in food choices, providing positive reinforcement, and presenting visually appealing meals can stimulate appetite (Taylor et al., 2019). Intervention #3: Work with a registered dietitian within the health center to educate patients on the importance of nutritional requirements, then develop a meal plan based on their preferences and needs. Rationale: Involving a dietitian will lead to a tailored and efficient healthy plan to address the specific patient’s nutritional needs (Taylor et al., 2019).

Evaluation: Goal Met. Jane engaged with the dietitian and identified high-calorie/nutritional meals. However, she gained eleven pounds, meeting and exceeding the set goal.

At-Risk Nursing Diagnosis: Jane is at risk of suicide-related to her absence of effective coping mechanisms, as evidenced by her intense simultaneous marijuana and alcohol use to escape reality.

SMART Goal: By December 30, 2023, the client will show evidence of recovery from depression, reduced marijuana and alcohol dependence, and healthy coping mechanisms.

Intervention#1: The nurse will introduce the therapist, who will discuss with Jane the details of CBT and its benefits and risks

Rationale: CBT is confirmed to be effective in addressing alcohol and substance addiction (Chiang et al., 2017). Intervention #2: The therapist will apply the steps of CBT to take Jane through the recovery process.

Rationale: CBT must be administered in doses over time to allow patients to recover (Mehta et al., 2021). Intervention #3: The nurse will intervene so that the family can allow Jane to continue with the CBT sessions beyond her period at the hospital. Rationale: As stated, CBT is effective if applied in various sections. The continuous intervention will reduce the risks of relapse (Mehta et al., 2021). Evaluation: Goal Partially Met. Jane showed remarkable recovery. The therapist recounted a changed perspective, renewed vigor, and positive attitude toward life. However, the client still reported frequent signs of boredom and occasional craving for marijuana (Mehta et al., 2021).

Health Prevention-Promotion Nursing Diagnosis: Prepare Jane to be able to enhance her optimism related to her anxiety, as evidenced by her stating, “What can I do to help me feel better?”

SMART Goal: By December 30, 2023, the client can redefine her attitude towards life and set personal goals.

Intervention#1: The therapist will assess the mental barriers that fuel Jane’s pessimism. Rationale: CBT is anchored on functional analysis and addressing co-occurring mental health issues (Mehta et al., 2021). Intervention #2: The therapist will guide Jane on setting realistic and achievable goals for herself on topics related to jobs and career

Rationale: CBT helps individuals set realistic and achievable goals to help them abstain from substance use, improve relationships, or pursue personal and professional growth (Mehta et al., 2021). Intervention #3: Therapist will help Jane account for all progress made by the end of December

Rationale: By achieving small successes in managing substance use, Jane can build confidence in her ability to make positive changes in her life (Mehta et al., 2021). Evaluation: Goal Partially Met. Jane made remarkable progress in setting goals for herself. Most of the goals were met, but she has yet to meet those related to her career.

Healthy People 2030 Objective and Nursing Implications

One of the objectives of Healthy People 2030 is to help over 20 million Americans who have an addiction overcome their addiction problem. This nursing care plan encompasses critical aspects of overcoming addiction, including establishing stable physical health, having a clear mindset, and setting goals for personal development. This plan meets the Healthy People 2030 requirements that a strategy for preventing addiction should focus on helping these people be active and part of the treatment process. The implication of this plan for nursing practice is that when formulating a treatment plan for people with AOD use, the focus must be on addressing both alcohol and drug problems while also focusing on the person’s mental and physical health. However, it must be noted that Jane’s case was not a severe one, and the success may have been due to the lack of a prior addiction diagnosis. However, the success paints an optimistic picture of progress.


This essay has reviewed the developing discourse on how to treat people with co-occurring drug and substance addiction, as well as the Healthy People 2030 objectives regarding overcoming addiction. There are millions of Americans and people the world over, particularly men, who are still slaves to addiction. While the case for Jane has shown some success, she needs ongoing support to assess her commitment to the plan. She, therefore, should be assisted to focus on restoring her health. Daisy and other family should engage a mental health professional to help her cope with her depression. This recommendation emphasizes the necessity of using all available support structures to help addicts and alcohol users navigate through their addiction and thrive.


American Addiction Centers. (2024, January 11). Alcohol and Drug Abuse Statistics (Facts About Addiction). Retrieved February 3, 2024, from https://americanaddictioncenters.org/addiction-statistics#:~:text=Quick%20Facts%20on%20Drug%20Addiction,substance%20use%20disorder%20in%202017.&text


Ansari, W. E., & Salam, A. (2021). Multi-Substance Use Behaviors: Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug (ATOD) Use among University Students in Finland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(12), 6426. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126426

Bustamante, J. (2023, January 1). NCDAS: Substance Abuse and Addiction Statistics [2023]. NCDAS. https://drugabusestatistics.org/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, August 3). Illicit Drug Use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 3, 2024, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/drug-use-illicit.htm

Chiang, K. J., Tsai, J. C., Liu, D., Lin, C. H., Chiu, H. L., & Chou, K. (2017). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLOS ONE12(5), e0176849. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176849

Healthy People 2030. (2024). Addiction – Healthy People 2030. Health.gov. Retrieved February 3, 2024, from https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/addiction

Li, B. (2023). Alcohol and Co-occurring Substance Use. Pharmacotherapy for Complex Substance Use Disorders: A Practical Guide, p. 73.

Mehta, K., Hoadley, A., Ray, L. A., Kiluk, B. D., Carroll, K. M., & Magill, M. (2021). Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions targeting alcohol or other drug use and Co-Occurring Mental health Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Alcohol and Alcoholism56(5), 535–544. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agab016

NIAAA. (2023). Alcohol use in the United States: Age groups and demographic characteristics. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Retrieved February 3, 2024, from https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohols-effects-health/alcohol-topics/alcohol-facts-and-statistics/alcohol-use-united-states-age-groups-and-demographic-characteristics#:~:text=Prevalence%20of%20Lifetime%20Drinking&text=According%20to%20the%202022%20National,


Patrick, M. E., Kloska, D. D., Terry‐McElrath, Y. M., Lee, C. M., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (2017). Patterns of simultaneous and concurrent alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse44(4), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2017.1402335

Searby, A., Maude, P., & McGrath, I. (2016). Prevalence of co‐occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing25(2), 151–158. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12215

Taylor, C., Lynn, P., & Bartlett, J. (2019). Lippincott CoursePoint for Taylor: Fundamentals of Nursing (9th Edition). Wolters Kluwer Health Retrieved from: https://coursepoint.vitalsource.com/reader/books/9781975101336/

Personal Leadership Philosophy in Nursing

  • Introduction:

Leadership in nursing is complex because it involves many theories and skills. This essay addresses the evolution of a personal leadership philosophy in nursing, relying on transformational and resonant theories. This paper looks at the AONE Nurse Executive Competencies and organizational theories to understand what personal values align with effective leadership in the nursing profession.

Thesis Statement: Combining transformational and resonant leadership theories with an alignment to AONE Nurse Executive competencies creates a solid personal nursing leadership philosophy. This philosophy promotes communication, relationship building, awareness of the healthcare environment, professionalism, and business skills, offering a dynamic approach that benefits the nursing team and patient care.

  • AONE Nurse Executive Competencies:

Communication and Relationship Building (Leadership and Informatics): Communication is the very essence of nursing leadership. Using transformational and resonant leadership ideas, the nurse leader has to create an environment of open communication that focuses on building positive relationships, resulting in a healthy, conducive work environment. For example, active listening to team members can quickly address concerns, establishing a culture of trust and openness (Speranza & Pierce, 2019).

Knowledge of the Healthcare Care Environment (Leadership and Informatics): Nursing leaders must have significant knowledge of the healthcare environment. Including organizational theories in their leadership strategy enables them to run through complexities smoothly. The leadership quality that focuses on emotional intelligence, a more complete picture of the healthcare setting, is reflected in the fact that resonant leadership can lead to better decision-making (Roussel et al., 2022).

Leadership (Leadership and Informatics): Effective nursing leadership is based on leadership theories. Through the use of transformational and resonant leadership drivers, nurse leaders can influence their teams, thus enhancing innovation and endurance. The shifting or flexibility of leadership styles according to the situation is an element that improves overall effectiveness (Storr, 2020).

Professionalism (Leadership and Informatics): Ethical practice, accountability, and continuous improvement are all facets of professionalism within nursing leadership. Integrating personal values and resonant leadership principles, a nurse leader generates an ambience saturated with individual health, advancement, and honesty (Canavesi & Minelli, 2021).

Business Skills and Principles (Leadership and Informatics – Informatics Specialty): In today’s dynamic healthcare environment, nurse leaders who specialize in informatics must be able to incorporate technology into their work without any problems. These leaders can manage information and technology effectively by adapting organizational theories and practicing a resonant leadership model, successfully achieving the best standards in patient care and the success of their organizations (Gaddy, 2017).

  • Personal Leadership Philosophy:

J Developing a personal leadership philosophy is an exercise in self-reflection that demands constant digging into one’s central beliefs and values. In my leadership style, I borrow from both transformational and resonant theories of leadership. This belief is reflected in transformational leadership, which promotes inspiration and motivation of others to a unifying vision. This entails articulating an inspiring vision and building a culture where each team player feels incentivized to do their best.

  • Leadership and Organizational Theories:

Effective practice of nursing requires an understanding of leadership theories. Transformational leadership focuses on inspiring and uplifting followers. Alternatively, the prime qualities of resonant leadership are mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Combining these theories provides a progressive and flexible leadership model that accommodates healthcare environment changes.

For instance, the transformation component supports leaders with a clear vision of the future, inspiring the rest of the team to work towards something they can relate to. At the same time, resonant leadership principles direct leaders to feel how they can satisfy the emotional needs of their team members and create a comfortable work environment (Boyatzis & McKee, 2005).

  • Theory and Competency Alignment:

Communication and Relationship Building: Following transformational leadership and resonant leadership, effective communication becomes a method for creating efficient relationships in the nursing team. This competency guarantees that the leader is sensitive to the team’s emotional needs, thereby creating an environment in which people support one another.

For instance, a transformational leader can motivate the team in troubled times by explaining how their work fulfils a shared vision. On the other hand, a resonant leader can concentrate on bringing comfort and raising hope and friendship (Storr, 2020).

Knowledge of the Health Care Environment: Transformational leadership encourages leaders to be more observant, receptive and flexible in their approach, as the healthcare environment is a constantly changing landscape. In resonant leadership, emotional intelligence also becomes one of the components and ensures deep knowledge about organizational culture and healthcare team members’ well-being.

In practice, this skill guarantees that nursing leaders not only know about the newest trends in healthcare but also consider how changes affect employees’ hearts. This integrated understanding improves the decision process and contributes to a productive work environment (Roussel et al., 2022).

Leadership: Transformational and resonant leadership theories emphasize leading by example, motivating others, and working toward innovation. This competency links to such theories’ adaptive and aspirational features, which promote leadership in different situations.

For example, a transformational leader can persuade the group to accept change by pointing out its advantages. At the same time, a resonant leader can engage with individual members by building an atmosphere of novelty and further development (Boyatzis & McKee, 2005).

Professionalism: The presence of congruence between personal values and resonant leadership principles promotes professionalism in nursing leadership. The competency also focuses on ethical behavior, accountability and creating a work environment that benefits an individual’s growth and integrity.

However, this alignment in practice requires that nursing leaders maintain ethical standards while creating a climate of responsibility within the group. Through resonant leadership principles, leaders can design an environment that focuses on individual care and growth for each employee (Canavesi & Minelli, 2021).

Business Skills and Principles (Informatics Specialty): The digital revolution in nursing leadership ensures the adherence to transformational and resonant paradigms. This competency makes it possible for leaders specializing in informatics to manage information and technology efficiently, thus promoting organizational success.

For example, an informatics specialty transformational leader may introduce new technologies to improve processes, focusing on how they benefit patient care. At the same time, a resonant leader in this situation could work to provide support and training so that the team adopts technology effectively (Gaddy, 2017).

  • Conclusion:

An integrated approach between leadership theories and competencies needs to be formulated to develop a nursing leadership philosophy. Using transformational and resonant leadership principles, nurse leaders can develop an innovative and versatile model that promotes healthy relationships, tackles the nuances of healthcare settings, and aligns with AONE Nurse Executive Competencies. In doing so, they improve team performance and better patient care.


Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/ncid/BA74193389

Canavesi, A., & Minelli, E. (2021). Servant Leadership: A Systematic Literature Review and Network Analysis. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal34(3), 267–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-021-09381-3

Gaddy, S. (2017). Hone your leadership philosophy as a DS provider. Disability Compliance for Higher Education22(8), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/dhe.30277

Roussel, L. A., Thomas, P. L., & Harris, J. L. (2022). Management and leadership for nurse administrators. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Speranza, C. R., & Pierce, A. (2019). Development of a Personal Leadership Philosophy: an experiential and reflective opportunity in the graduate classroom. The Journal of Leadership Education18(3), 167–175. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1221973

Storr, J. (2020). Perspectives: Go quickly, start now: a personal leadership philosophy. Journal of Research in Nursing25(4), 393–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987120916992

Nursing Challenges in the 21st Century

Nurturing through upkeep and loving bonds fixes human society. The nursing field has many heartfelt stories to share and a wide range of difficulties. Even with its advancement and modernization, the American healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Nurses are crucial in the healthcare industry as they provide patient care and have leadership roles in hospitals, health systems, and other administrative settings. The discussion will focus on the challenges experienced by nurses, including shortage of staff, long working hours, workplace health hazards, societal issues, and financial constraints. Also, the conversation will explain the importance of these challenges in healthcare.

Understaffing is one of the major problems that modern nurses face. Due to an apparent staffing deficit in hospitals, nurses are required to perform tasks other than nursing. This results in a low nurse-to-patient ratio and more nurses attending to patients than is reasonable (Challinor et al., 2020). The patient-nurse relationship is hampered by the excessive workload that nurses are under. Inequality in the nurse-to-patient ratio and workforce principles to unmanageable patient load The nurse-to-patient ratio is vital to maintain since it dramatically impacts how patient care is delivered. Patients die, contract infections, sustain injuries, or are sent home too soon when nurses are required to work with high nurse-patient ratios and have inadequate training on how to take care of their illnesses.

A short recruitment strategy in a healthcare setting frequently results in long workdays and staff nurse turnover. It is clearly having a negative impact on the nurses’ health. When a nurse is physically and mentally worn out, it can be challenging to provide coordinated nursing care (Pittman, 2019). Because of understaffing, nurses are forced to work long hours and perform tasks outside their areas of expertise, leaving them with little time to perform their actual duties. They overspend on nursing-related tasks, such as inventory, record keeping, and billing.

Nurses risk developing health risks related to their jobs if appropriate precautions and upkeep are not followed. Nurses face various biological, physical, and chemical hazards (Bayliss-Pratt et al., 2020). Nurses often arrive at work with serious illnesses, and their safety is not given priority. In this sense, nurses are more likely to contract fatal illnesses that could ultimately result in their death.

Various societal concerns surrounding nurses in their jobs, for instance, lack of acknowledgment by other professions, are a concern to the profession. Nurses are highly qualified professionals who complete professional courses and training to become certified. However, many view them as uneducated, morally dubious women who serve as maids (Bayliss-Pratt et al., 2020). They believe they still need to receive the acknowledgment that they are due. They have experienced severe discomfort regarding their status and have been acutely aware of its injustice as a result of the disconnect between who they consider themselves and what other people perceive of them. The issue of gender and stereotypes still exists, as nursing is still perceived as tender, feminine, and unproven labor, a long cry from the highly educated and skilled realities of the field today (Bayliss-Pratt et al., 2020). Men make up a small percentage of the workforce and are overrepresented in positions and ethnic groups as a result of this. Consequently, this has exacerbated issues like inadequate hiring and retention.

Nurse remuneration persists despite the amplified workload and necessity of nurses functioning as caretakers. The private sector needs more uniformity and pays more. Many are required to sign a bonded agreement that links them to that facility inexorably, and breaching the contract frequently entails paying a large sum of money to be released, according to Lee et al. (2019). If not, the hospital administration owns all of their certifications. In this sense, nurses’ pay for their labor is unfair.

These issues that impact nurses drive improvements in healthcare to make room for fresh approaches to reducing nursing difficulties. Only in healthcare contexts are new tactics pertinent to regaining competence and dignity. These difficulties are essential for creating environments that support nurses. Due to understaffing, additional nurses are required to meet the demanding demands. Nursing challenges are what promote healthy work settings. These difficulties also guarantee supplies and tools for the job and encourage payment to nurses who work overtime to please the patients. Strategies are taken into account to guarantee the advocacy and safety of nurses. For example, there is a need for more public support for nurses’ activism. In order to achieve changes in regulations controlling work settings and individual requirements, nurses encountering these issues are leading the way in healthcare conversations. These disadvantages are considered to offset additional shortcomings in the healthcare system and guarantee innovative approaches to lessen nursing obstacles.

In conclusion, the public and patients have a right to the most excellent care and services medical professionals provide. Only a highly motivated and equipped team will be able to accomplish this. These challenges will put nurses at the forefront of addressing health issues of the twenty-first century by enabling them to reach their full potential and address issues of delivering high-quality healthcare, advancing gender equality, and fostering economic prosperity. Meeting the needs of nurses and overcoming their obstacles can empower, inspire, challenge, and validate them to keep striving for excellence without hindrance.


Bayliss‐Pratt, L., Daley, M., & Bhattacharya‐Craven, A. (2020). Nursing now 2020: the nightingale challenge. International Nursing Review, 67(1), 7–10.

Challinor, J. M., Alqudimat, M. R., Teixeira, T. O., & Oldenmenger, W. H. (2020). Oncology nursing workforce: challenges, solutions, and future strategies. The Lancet Oncology, 21(12), e564-e574.

Lee, E., Daugherty, J., & Hamelin, T. (2019). Reimagine healthcare leadership, challenges, and opportunities in the 21st century. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 34(1), 27–38.

Pittman, P. (2019). Activating nursing to address unmet needs in the 21st century.

Analysis of Leadership Traits and Strengths

Emotional Intelligence in Action

My chief nurse manager used emotional intelligence (EI) techniques to defuse a heated argument with a distressed patient’s family member last month. The manager actively listened and acknowledged the family member’s reasonable irritation when they approached the nurses angrily over a delay in their mother’s pain medication delivery. She explained the workflow problems that caused the delay in a relaxed, compassionate manner. Despite the family member’s extreme rage, this made them feel heard, which eventually caused them to change their position. The manager’s composed demeanor and attention to the underlying emotions eventually solved the issue (Cherry, 2022). It may have turned into a heated dispute or formal grievance if she had responded defensively or minimized their worries. One important nursing leadership characteristic is the capacity to understand, connect to, and affect people’s emotions.

Improving Social Intelligence

I can keep developing my EI skills by using these two evidence-based strategies: First, Journaling: I take ten to fifteen minutes daily to write down my emotional highs and lows. Also, writing down any possible triggers and my behavioral reactions may help me become more self-aware on the inside over time. I regularly review diary entries for trends yielding significant, growth-promoting personal insights. Secondly, mindfulness training: Even brief (5–10 minutes per day) mindfulness meditation sessions might reinforce brain pathways involved in impulse control and mood regulation. In addition, the mental fortitude required to wait before acting is developed by actively concentrating attention on the current situation without passing judgment (Cherry, 2021). This makes it possible for replies to be more deliberate, intelligent, and in line with objectives. Research-backed mindfulness instruction is offered via apps such as Headspace.

Moreover, my ability to manage relationships and myself will improve by including mindfulness exercises and reflective writing in my leadership routine. I can interact with patients, coworkers, and disagreements more professionally and productively by consistently gaining a better knowledge of my inner emotional terrain and honing cognitive control (Cherry, 2021). Thus, the study shows that measurable improvements in emotional intelligence are achieved by integrating personal development tools.

In conclusion, the analysis has highlighted the tremendous importance of emotional intelligence in nursing leadership and patient care. I can keep honing these vital abilities by developing empathy through mindfulness training and increasing self-awareness through writing. As I formulate regular practices of self-examination and mindfulness, I anticipate managing professional relationships and obstacles with more discernment and elegance. Emotionally mature leaders can mediate disputes, reduce anxiety, and promote cooperative care teams. I want to advance toward the highest standards of patient-centered nursing excellence by focusing on personal development in impulse control and social awareness. Developing emotional intelligence skills is beneficial because of its overwhelmingly favorable effects.

Emotional Intelligence and Self-Evaluation

I have determined that self-awareness and empathy are the two main areas where I think I can develop my emotional intelligence (EI) after reading the article “Professional Communication: How is Your EQ?” and completing the accompanying emotional intelligence (EI) self-evaluation.

According to the EI evaluation, I still need to be more self-aware. While I may have a rough idea of my emotional patterns, I sometimes have a more profound grasp of what prompts specific emotional reactions. Therefore, my self-awareness score suggests that I may only sometimes know how my emotions affect my choices, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions. In addition, I will start a daily reflection notebook to do better at this aspect of EI. I will also check in with my emotions at least twice daily in my journal: once in the morning to record my overall emotional state and pinpoint any variables impacting it. Again, I will be recording it once in the evening to consider the highs and lows of the day. The objective is frequently focusing on my emotions to raise my internal emotional awareness (Cherry, 2023). This exercise should provide insights into common reactions and emotional triggers. I want to regulate my reactionary inclinations with a more mindful knowledge of myself.

The EI exam also showed me where I might improve my empathy. Even though I usually try to see things from others’ points of view, I did poorly when empathizing with their feelings. Thus, I want to develop the everyday practice of paying close attention to others throughout exchanges to improve my empathy. We will need to pay close attention to speakers’ words, body language, facial expressions, and voice tone to discern the emotions conveyed by their communications. Besides, to learn more about the perspectives and experiences of my colleagues, I will ask more insightful follow-up questions rather than only listening to their responses (Cherry, 2021). By asking questions, I can better understand other people’s perspectives. More focused observation and in-depth investigation should support my development of more robust emotional ties and reactivity.

Furthermore, in areas where I can still develop consistent self-reflection and focus, empathic listening will help me become more emotionally intelligent. Over the following weeks and months, as I work to incorporate these activities into my daily routines, I am excited to see how my emotional abilities develop. My ability to interact carefully, cooperatively, and successfully with coworkers and circumstances will increase as I build my self-knowledge and social awareness.


Cherry, K. (2021, October 11). How emotionally intelligent are You? Emotional intelligence can play a role in life success. Let us assess your EQ. Verywell Mind.

Cherry, K. (2023, November 25). 7 Habits of Emotionally Intelligent People. Fact-checked by Sean Blackburn. Verywell Mind.

Root-Cause Analysis and Safety Improvement Plan in Nursing


The root-cause analysis is one of the most important devices for improving safety and quality in nursing practice. This approach identifies the underlying causes of patient safety issues and is crucial for effective intervention development. Root-cause analysis goes below the superficial ghosts to disclose what initiated all these adverse cases. Through a complete process of identifying the root causes of these issues, irrespective of whether they are procedural inadequacies, environmental factors, human error, or systemic problems, healthcare professionals will be able to treat such causes directly. This methodology also guarantees that solutions are short-term patches and long-term alterations to enhance patient safety. Second, this approach develops an analytical mindset among healthcare professionals that promotes a proactive approach to risk anticipation and management that guarantees ongoing improvement in care delivery. The outlined plan is an attempt to tackle the found root-cause analysis underlying falls in geropsychiatric patients in general, a significant matter, as revealed in an earlier assessment.

Root-Cause Analysis

In geropsychiatric patients, the institutions of care falls represent a patient safety issue, which, in the majority of instances, leads to severe head injuries and hospitalizations (Pachana et al., 2021). Twenty falls per year were systematically collected and analyzed based on the root-cause analysis of this problem. Emphasized elements involved the issues of impairment as a result of medications, zolpidem as a sedative that leads to immobility and poor balance. Falls were partly linked to the night shifts because of environmental factors such as poor light sources and insufficient staff numbers. The relationship between fall incidence and staffing levels was evident, enabling us to identify a significant attribute regarding patient safety. The majority of falls occur in the area of patients’ beds during evening or night shifts when the number of staff is usually restricted in the majority of healthcare facilities. This development suggests that the inability to be accessible to the staff during these hours can compromise proper patient monitoring and timely help, as geropsychiatric patients need to be monitored frequently and with fast assistance. These changes increase risk because of worse visual acuity, patient disorientation is higher, and evening drugs cause side effects. This leads these observations to rave about the need to look over individual allocation and patient control during night watch to ensure adequate personnel attention management and prompt response so patients can meet immediate needs and reduce the incidence of falls.

Evidence-Based and Best-Practice Strategies

Evidence-based strategies for addressing identified causes in solution form. The application of sedatives needs to be explored, and melatonin could replace them as it is unlikely to make the patient oversedated (Cuomo et al. 2021). The electronic bed- and chair-exit alarms can also warn of potential falls. Intentional rounding, a proactive patient care method to prevent falls in geropsychiatric patients, also proves to be quite effective. This practice involves regular, interval rounds by nurses for each patient. Though not just physical assessments, these rounds develop a psychological comprehension of each patient’s needs, including pain management, toileting, and accessibility to their belongings. Intentional rounding aids in identifying fall risk factors early, like harmful environmental threats or changes to the patient’s condition, by organized and regular interactions. In addition, this approach strengthens staff–patient communication and accountable care by building trust. Intentional rounding commonly includes patients handling immediate safety concerns and increasing patient satisfaction and health.

Safety Improvement Plan

The improvement plan comprises two main strategies: Decreasing performance and cooperation between employees and environmental changes (Helmer-Smith et al., 2022). In addition, intentional rounding and one-to-one patient observation are essential aspects of staff training, particularly regarding high-risk patients. This training allows an individual to guarantee that employees can observe patients adequately and respond fairly quickly to reduce falls. Incorporating ecological changes and specific signage significantly increases the safety levels in geropsychiatric units. The creation of improvements like beta and chair-exit alarms is a very crucial step in minimizing fall threats. Actively preventing falls is achieved through the alteration of the physical setting with staff awareness that allows extending external threats to improve patient mobility and stability. The ideal method would be the signs used to warn all staff members about fall risks. For instance, it is easy to inform caregivers if a patient has a high fall risk with specific symbols or color-coded signs beside the bedside and on their door. This image communication approach assures staff security in all cases where the patients know or do not know. This increased awareness allows prompt attention to possible situations where a patient may fall, greatly enhancing safety.

Leveraging Organizational Resources

The successful implementation of this safety improvement plan relies upon the capability to capitalize upon current resources available in the organization. This entails capitalizing on existing capabilities and workforce knowledge to ensure monitoring and enhancement of patient care (Potts et al., 2023). it is possible to make the necessary changes to enable installations of bed- and chair-exit alarms using modern infrastructure. By relying on already having organizational resources for a safety improvement plan, you ensure cost-effectiveness and keep minimizing patient routine disruption as well as staff practice revisions. This strategy also needs more hiring of new staff. Therefore, it means lower financial expenditure due to the fourth factor, which reflects the use of the talents and competencies of current staff for improved patient tracking or learning new procedures.

Alternatively, recycling existing assets, including turning beds and chairs to ensure safety, would involve minimum adjustments in the transition process due to the ease of change and low cost of these available without requiring much money. This way, it preserves patient and employee routines, giving them a familiar feeling. It also encourages staff engagement and loyalty since they involve themselves in improvement using their shared resources. This level of acquaintance reduces the resistance to change and speeds up the pace of adjustment, which increases efficiency and effectiveness in implementing this plan.


Falling incidents among geropsychiatric patients are one of the major safety issues that are preventable. This concern can be adequately handled by conducting a comprehensive root cause analysis and implementing an evidence-based safety improvement plan. The proposed program, which includes staff training, medication management, and environment alteration, is an integrated approach to enhancing patient safety in geropsychiatric environments. The generic approach also provides a safety improvement plan that offers more than the short-term solution of immediate safety considerations as a key component of building an atmosphere that always supports quality nursing practice. The plan promotes an environment suitable for monitoring quality and safety at all times and improving using standardized changes in staff training, medicines control, and infrastructural changes. The proactive strategy ensures that staff remains vigilant and adaptive to the patient’s needs, essentially an ongoing evaluation of self-assessments. Involving the employees in developing and implementing safety measures fosters a feeling of ownership in the patient’s care. This all-encompassing approach ensures that safety is embedded in the nursing practice rather than being a mere merit of compliance. The ongoing refinement by feedback and new standards reinforces the concept of the quality improvement journey as an endless pursuit, not a state of arrival.


Pachana, N. A., Molinari, V., Thompson, L. W., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (Eds.). (2021). Psychological Assessment and Treatment of Older Adults. Hogrefe Publishing GmbH. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YqSbEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT5&dq=For+geropsychiatric+patients+in+institutions+of+care,+



Cuomo, A., Koukouna, D., Macchiarini, L., & Fagiolini, A. (2021). Patient safety and risk management in mental health. Textbook of patient safety and clinical risk management, 287-298. https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/46117/1/2021_Book_TextbookOfPatientSafety


Helmer-Smith, M., Mihan, A., Sethuram, C., Moroz, I., Crowe, L., MacDonald, T., … & Liddy, C. (2022). Identifying primary care models of dementia care that improve quality of life for people living with dementia and their care partners: an environmental scan. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement41(4), 550-564. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/canadian-journal-on-aging-la-revue-canadienne-du-vieillissement/article/identifying-primary-care-models-of-dementia-care-that-improve-quality-of-life-for-people-living-with-dementia-and-their-care-partners-an-environmental-scan/EBDED241B23E1CBFA98A7DA176B4E989

Potts, C., Mulvenna, M., O’Neill, S., Donohoe, G., & Barry, M. (2023, September). Digital mental health interventions for young people–review of the literature. In European Conference on Mental Health. https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/digital-mental-health-interventions-for-young-people-review-of-th

Enhancing Quality and Safety in Nursing: A Focus on Patient-Safety Risks


When speaking of healthcare, patient safety and quality care are essential. As the largest healthcare provider, nurses have a significant share in this mission. According to a report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM), almost one million individuals suffer each year in America due to medical errors, many leading to death. This paper will focus on a significant safety quality problem in healthcare and how nurses play a role in solving it.

Selection of a Safety Quality Issue: Patient Identification Errors in Healthcare

One of the crucial and severe threats to patient safety in a healthcare setting is making identification errors. Such misidentification may lead to severe outcomes, breach of trusting relationships, a rift in professional reputation, legal ramifications that disrupt operations, and healthcare provider trauma, escalating costs while causing accreditation complications (Popescu et al., 2022). Errors in patient identification were selected because they not only risk the safety of patients but also slowly undermine the entire healthcare system. These errors undermine the effectiveness of health outcomes, increasing the chances of wrong treatments and operations and destroying patients’ confidence in those who provide healthcare. These errors probably have a perceived ripple effect on operational effectiveness, regulatory compliance, and professional image in a healthcare facility. Moreover, such errors contribute to a system-level weakness that underlines the importance of accurate and faultless identification protocols to maintain patients’ safety and ensure healthcare consistency.

Patient-Safety Risk Analysis

Systemic issues in the healthcare setting account for most errors that result from patient misidentification, such as poor staff training, lack of proper communications, and flawed verification processes. These errors yield instant effects such as a long recovery time, serious health complications, or even death due to an administration of wrong medications (Rodziewicz & Hipskind 202 In addition, such errors of patient misidentification cause a lot of harm because they destroy the confidence that patients and families have in healthcare systems. Such errors pose an imminent danger to the safety of a patient and become long-standing vices of negligence or incompetence. This distrust may have long-term impacts as the patients and family members tend to put off or refuse medical care in the future for fear that they will repeat such errors. Distrust is not limited to individual cases and can create general public mistrust in the safety provided by competent medical care. This unwillingness leads to the deterioration of health outcomes, which, together with increasing healthcare costs caused by an already overburdened system, reinforces reliance on consistent patient identification as a fundamental practice to ensure proper confidence in provided services from medical institutions.

EBP and Best Practices

Some best practices that minimize identification errors include standard operating procedures (using two identifiers, including name and date of birth)and electronic health records. These measures include the application of barcode scanning and biometric technologies. Train staff in these protocols and educate people on the correct identification of patients. Different studies show that implementing stringent policies on the identification of patients contributes to reducing ID mistakes and ensuring better patient safety. Implementing standardized identification procedures, among which are multiple identifiers and technological approaches like barcode scanning, has an impact on reduced misidentification rates (Essink et al., 2020). Therefore, this diminishing number of errors provides immediate patient benefits and indirectly makes a healthcare environment generally safer. This results in decreased wrong-patient medication administration, surgical malpractices, and diagnostic errors associated with these interventions. Moreover, such mechanisms build a safety culture in all healthcare settings, highlighting thoroughness and accuracy at every interaction with the patient, leading to care enhancement.

Nursing Coordination of Care

The nursing personnel strive to maintain patient care coordination for improved safety. They often are the first interaction point with patients and serve a wide range of functions in patient care, meaning they play an essential role in the identification stage. Nursing professionals should enforce Best patient identification practices through disciplinary measures such as protocols to ensure compliance and push for advanced technologies (Somani, 2021). Nurses’ educating patients and their families about safety measures is vital in reducing risk factors in nursing practice. This intervention teaches patients and relatives to strengthen their willingness to participate in treatment, thereby increasing patient attention and making the environment safer through collaboration. Nurses foster an equal obligation to safety by being mindful of the processes of identification and correctness in care. This approach heightens vigilance among patients and their relatives, who are also looking to see if what they received is correct, adding a layer of protection against misidentification. These types of education also de-mystify clinical procedures, thereby reducing anxiety and creating a significant sense of trust for an effective health system. In going through such educational experiences, nurses have a vital role in facilitating engagement and safety within healthcare facilities by having patients as partners in keeping the healthcare error-free.

Identify Keyholder

To properly manage the errors in patient identification, management should work with a vast amount of stakeholders, providers, administrative staff, and patients. Nurses should work with this group to promote and initiate reliable identification practices. The partnership between technology manufacturers and regulators is vital to ensure the dissemination of new identification methods for patients. These relationships enable the use of some advanced technologies, namely biometrics and RFID systems, in clinical practice that can be tailored to clinicians’ needs and legal regulations. Through partnership with technology practitioners, nurses will play a role in generating user-friendly systems with increased accuracy and efficiency. Concurrently, cooperation with regulatory bodies ensures that such technologies align with legal and ethical standards to create a safe environment. This active participation is essential to incorporating patient safety practices so that technological advances can be built on good standards of care and confidentiality. Therefore, the combination of people working in medicine, technology, and regulation leads to new cures that dramatically reduce misidentification errors, thus resulting in increased patient safety.


A considerable public safety hazard in health care is patient identification errors. They should strive to become the leaders of best practices and evidence-based solutions. When nurses can overcome these challenges, they can take the lead in improving care quality and safety. They are the first ones to be immediately in contact with patients and detect and manage risks associated with identification mistakes made by patients. As nurses are the custodians of invaluable information and clinical power, they can promote evidence-based practices that would have a bearing on policy and practice processes. Its prescriptive performance addresses the risk and creates a safety culture in medical facilities. This approach involves nurses from bedside care to policy advocacy and helps initiate systemic changes by placing patient safety first and providing high service provision in healthcare institutions.


Popescu, C., El-Chaarani, H., El-Abiad, Z., & Gigauri, I. (2022). Implementation of Health Information Systems to Improve Patient Identification. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(22), 15236. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/22/15236

Essink, H. M., Knops, A., Liqui Lung, A. M., van der Meulen, C. N., Wouters, N. L., van der Molen, A. J., … & Termaat, M. F. (2020). Real-time person identification in a hospital setting: A systematic review. Sensors20(14), 3937. https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/20/14/3937

Somani, R., Muntaner, C., Hillan, E., Velonis, A. J., & Smith, P. (2021). A systematic review: effectiveness of interventions to de-escalate workplace violence against nurses in healthcare settings. Safety and health at work12(3), 289-295. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2093791121000354 Top of Form

Rodziewicz, T. L., & Hipskind, J. E. (2020). Medical error prevention. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. http://www.saludinfantil.org/Postgrado_Pediatria/Pediatria_Integral/papers/Medical%20Error%20


Efficacy of Telehealth Interventions in Treating Depression Among Older Adults

Provisioning care that optimizes outcomes requires the use of evidence-based nursing practice. Nurses utilize their experiences in the care process and leadership to identify issues that can be addressed and improved with evidence-based interventions. Depression disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent and impactful health disorders among older adults. According to the World Health Organization (2023), an estimated 3.8% of the population experience depression, including 5% of adults (4% among men and 6% among women) and 5.7% of adults older than 60 years. The number sums to approximately 280 million people in the world who have depression. However, health insurance unavailability/lack of funds, inadequate providers and access, transit problems, shame, and suffering from mental ailment may lead to barriers to care. These challenges can be worse for the aged due to diminished cognitive and or sensory impairments, being alone socially as well as physical sicknesses.

In recent years, telehealth is increasingly used for synchronous provision of behavioral health services. Telepsychology and telepsychiatry delivered via technology simultaneously promise to improve access to care and overcome barriers to treatment (Guaiana et al., 2020). Factors such as stigma and practical issues like lack of transport or difficulty in taking time off from work hinder individuals from accessing care. Telehealth improves healthcare accessibility for remote service members, offers flexible appointment times, and eliminates the need for constant presence in mental health clinics. This paper explores telehealth interventions as a potential solution and proposes an evidence-based practice change.

PICOT question

In older adults aged diagnosed with depression (P), does the implementation of telehealth interventions (I) compared to traditional in-person therapy (C), lead to a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (O) over a 12-week intervention period (T)?

Method of Studies

Bellanti et al. (2021) utilized a rapid review methodology to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral health treatments delivered in person compared to telehealth. The methods included a systematic search of the PubMed database, hand-searching of relevant systematic reviews, dual screening, single-person data abstraction verified by a second person, and dual risk of bias assessment. The study involved 22 RCTs, of which eight evaluated the efficacy of TH among populations with PTSD, depression, or mixed diagnoses using non-inferiority trials. Quantitative analyses were not conducted because of variations in heterogeneity among the studies. This methodology provides a strong base for comparing the efficiency of telehealth programs for mental health disorders. It gives useful ideas regarding how it can be employed to treat depression among the elderly.

Schiller et al. (2023) tested online depression therapies. The study used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 2010–2021 RCTs. Remission, responsiveness, and depression severity following treatment had varying outcomes. Reporting followed PRISMA standards, The Cochrane Handbook, and AHRQ recommendations for systematic reviews. The study examines virtual depression interventions using a broad search strategy, inclusion criteria, and consistent data extraction. It addresses all research questions in evidence-based practices by identifying bias sources, improving trial quality, and adjusting for heterogeneity.

Belanger and Winsberg (2022) compare telepsychiatric care for depression in older and younger persons. Psychiatric care was provided to 12,908 U.S. adults aged 18–82 from October 2018 to January 2022. With 23 covariates, propensity matching created two comparable groups, older and younger. Repetition ANOVA was used to assess PHQ-9 results. Using real-world data from a telehealth platform improved internal validity and revealed the age-specific effectiveness of telepsychiatric therapy. Propensity matching and repeated measurements ANOVA improve the study’s likelihood of answering the research topic.

Guaiana et al.’s (2020) systematic study analyzes telepsychiatry for unipolar depression. The review covered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of persons 18 or older with unipolar depression in diverse clinical settings and healthcare practitioners. Between 1946 and 2019, studies have to employ teletechnology and be published in English. The review eliminated trials with substantial medical comorbidities, children under 18, non-video treatments, and non-RCT designs. A systematic literature search across several databases examined acceptability, patient satisfaction, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. The review covers 1946–2019, offering a complete overview of depression telepsychiatry therapies.

Results of Studies/Key Findings

Bellanti et al. (2021) found 22 main RCTs assessing telepsychiatry in depression. Moreover, non-inferiority was demonstrated by telehealth modalities using telephone and video teleconferencing over in-person interventions across various psychotherapies. In relation to depression, telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was found to be as effective as face-to-face CBT, with the added benefit of improved treatment attendance. As regards PTSD, video teleconferencing based on EBTs was generally no different from face-to-face therapies, although some studies had higher drop-out rates amongst telehealth groups. Satisfaction and therapeutic alliance were similar between telepsychiatry and in-person options, thus indicating its feasibility and acceptance in diverse populations such as veterans. This research report highlights that mental health care can be made less expensive and more accessible through a telemental health approach.

Guaiana et al. (2020) found telepsychiatry preferred by patients as the best alternative to direct physician contact or compared favorably with it regarding treatment acceptability and patients’ attitudes. The efficacy evaluations revealed even better outcomes connected with telepsychiatry interventions than comparable treatments using conventional systems. Few of them excluded the cost implications of reduced travel, while others did not find any telemedicine expenses reduction. In contrast, some research articles reported on the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine more than those for traditional care. These findings confirm the viability, satisfaction, effectiveness, and potential savings related to depression treatment through telemedicine services.

Belanger and Winsberg (2022) showed substantial baseline differences between the four age groups in an initial sample of 12,908 individuals. Older adults have fewer fully employed individuals, higher incomes, more graduate degrees, chronic medical conditions, and diverse mental health histories compared to younger adults. However, there were similar groups after propensity matching was done despite such variances. Both age groups had a reduction in depression severity over time with telepsychiatric care, as shown by repeated measures analysis. Therefore, virtual modalities utilized by older adults produce equal depression outcomes as in younger adults, thereby challenging assumptions about older adults’ technology aversion.

According to Schiller et al. (2023), virtual interventions, primarily cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), demonstrated superior outcomes compared to waitlist and TAU regarding remission, response, and depression severity. Specifically, virtual interventions had higher odds of remission than waitlist (OR 10.30) and TAU (OR 2.27). Depression severity reduction was greater with virtual interventions than waitlist (SMD 0.81) and TAU (SMD 0.59). Virtual CBT outperformed attention control in remission (OR 1.92) and depression severity (SMD 0.25).

Outcomes Comparison

The anticipated outcomes for the PICOT question involve expecting a significant reduction in depressive symptoms among older adults diagnosed with depression over a 12-week intervention period when telehealth interventions are compared to traditional in-person therapy.

Comparison with selected articles

According to Bellanti et al. (2021), various psychotherapies yielded non-inferiority with online interventions, such as telephone and video teleconferencing. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) delivered over the phone was found to be as effective as it’s in–person counterpart but with better treatment contact rates. The finding is consistent with the expectation of substantial decreases in depressive symptoms through telehealth.

Schiller et al. (2023) found that Internet-based anxiety and depression treatments like CBT are more effective than conventional treatments or no treatment in terms of remission, response, and depression severity. It implies that virtual therapies may improve remission and depression severity reduction to satisfy telehealth intervention goals. Telepsychiatric care reduces depression severity with time, according to Belanger and Winsberg (2022). The PICOT results were as expected, demonstrating that virtual modalities can produce depression effects comparable to traditional therapy. Guaiana et al. (2020) found that patients preferred telepsychiatry to medical visits. Moreover, telepsychiatry interventions outperformed comparable treatments. This supports previous predictions about telemedicine therapy for depressed older individuals.

Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change

Effective interventions for the treatment of depression among older adults are the focus of the PICOT question. The research articles indicate that telehealth solves this problem by overcoming access barriers and yielding satisfactory results. Various barriers hinder the optimization of depression care for older adults in nursing practice. The proposed evidence-based practice change is integrating and promoting telehealth interventions like telepsychiatry as well as virtual interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy to enhance patient care for depression in older adults. The practice will enhance accessibility, reduce barriers, and ensure effective management of depression. The effectiveness of this practice change requires a comprehensive evaluation, including monitoring depressive symptom severity, treatment adherence, patient satisfaction, and follow-up rates. There should also be constant feedback from patients and healthcare providers for continuous improvement.


The evidence-based practice change of incorporating telehealth interventions for depression in older people is supported by the chosen articles. Expected results correspond with the affirmative findings from the study that stress the efficiency of telepsychiatry and virtual interventions. The recommended alteration solves not just nursing practice trouble but also encourages patient-centered care, aiming at better access and contentment in providing depression treatment to elderly people. The success of this practice change will require continuous assessment of outcomes.


Belanger, H. G., & Winsberg, M. (2022). Do older adults benefit from telepsychiatric care: Comparison to younger adults. Frontiers in Psychiatry13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.998401

Bellanti, D. M., Kelber, M. S., Workman, D. E., Beech, E. H., & Belsher, B. E. (2021). Rapid review on the effectiveness of telehealth interventions for the treatment of behavioral health disorders. Military Medicine187(5-6), e577–e588. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab318

Guaiana, G., Mastrangelo, J., Hendrikx, S., & Barbui, C. (2020). A systematic review of the use of telepsychiatry in depression. Community Mental Health Journal57(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00724-2

Schiller, C. E., Prim, J., Bauer, A. E., Lux, L., Lundegard, L. C., Kang, M., Hellberg, S., Thompson, K., Webber, T., Teklezghi, A., Pettee, N., Gaffney, K., Hodgins, G., Rahman, F., Steinsiek, J. N., Modi, A., & Gaynes, B. N. (2023). Efficacy of virtual care for depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. JMIR Mental Health10, e38955. https://doi.org/10.2196/38955

World Health Organization. (2023, March 31). Depressive disorder (depression). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression#:~:text=An%20estimated%203.8%25%20of%20the

Obesity in Adult People – Jacksonville, Florida

Empirical data from the Florida Department of Health in Duval shows that approximately 60% of the adults in Duval County are obese (Conti, 2018). Today, obesity is one of the leading health problems facing the people of Jacksonville, Florida. Reputable research from the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that 6 out of 10 adult people in Duval County are overweight. Due to the alarming rate of obesity in Duval County, several health plans, such as the Community Health Improvement Plan (CHIP), have been initiated to combat the progressive obesity disease. Reports from the initiated health plans show several causes of obesity among adults (Kelly, 2018). Some of the primary causes of obesity are lack of physical exercise, genetics and unhealthy eating habits. Most Americans have been associated with poor eating habits as most consume many fast foods and avoid healthy vegetables. After consuming fast food rich in fats, the body gains many fats converted into body sugars. The excess body sugars are unhealthy, which makes one gain excess weight, which can lead to chronic heart disease or even cancer.

Moreover, data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that there has been an increase in patient outcomes in most hospitals due to a high rate of obesity in the county. Approximately 11% of obesity patients have increased annually (Bhuyan & Ahmmed, 2020). This is evident in health records that show the quality of life in Duval County. Most of the patients who have visited health organizations have been diagnosed with overweight issues. This is a clear indication that many adults are suffering from obesity since most of the patients are over 40 years old. In this case, quality of life is a clear indicator showing that Duval County’s people are facing a health problem. Besides, people in Duval County have lacked access to quality healthcare services due to health disparity in Duval County (Kelly, 2018). Lack of access to healthcare services has increased the rate of obesity since people are not educated on primary interventions for combating obesity. People need to be educated on the importance of consuming healthy food such as green vegetables and being involved in physical activities. Community members can be educated at a community level as it is the most appropriate primary intervention for any health problem.

Comparing the national rate of obesity (42%) to that of the county date (60%) respectively (Conti, 2018). Duval is one of the leading counties with a high rate of obese adults. Duval County has many obese adults because of their unhealthy lifestyles, such as consuming fast food and lack of physical exercise. This is why the county has several health organizations, such as CHIP, to help reduce adult obesity cases. At the national level, the CDC has collaborated with the National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO) to help the people of Jacksonville, especially the youths, avoid the risks of obesity. Youths are educated on healthy lifestyles, such as a healthy diet to avoid obesity.

As a nurse, I can improve this health condition by providing community-based education on obesity. The education will focus on children and youths as they are at risk of becoming obese. Social and mass media can be the best platforms for these education campaigns as most children and youth access them (Borowy, 2023). Education, in this case, is termed as a primary plan as it targets the population at risk of becoming obese.


Bhuyan, K. C., & Ahmmed, Md. M. (2020). Socioeconomic factors associated with overweight and obesity: A case study among adult people of Bangladesh. AIUB Journal of Science and Engineering (AJSE)16(2). https://doi.org/10.53799/ajse.v16i2.78

Borowy, M. (2023). Social media is an innovative tool for trust-building by Healthcare Companies. Privacy, Trust and Social Media, 253–260. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003368700-23

Conti, C. R. (2018). Obesity and weight loss. European Cardiology Review13(2), 93. https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018.13.2.eo1

Kelly, E. B. (2018). In Obesity. essay, ABC-CLIO, LLC.

A Leadership and Change Management Approach to Diabetes Management

Diabetes is a problem that affects people all over the world and must be managed with a strategy that is both all-encompassing and multidimensional to be successful. Leadership and managing change are crucial aspects that must be considered when attempting to resolve diabetes management. These aspects must be considered because they are necessary for the creation and implementation of treatments that both enhance patient outcomes and lower overall healthcare expenditures. This paper offers a strategy for the care of diabetes that is led by leadership, and it incorporates change management, nursing ethics, patient participation, adherence to nursing practice standards and rules, and the integration of technology and community resources.

The Role of Leadership and Change Management in Addressing Diabetes

Leadership and effective management of change are two crucial elements that must be present for an effective response to diabetes. Leaders can motivate their staff to embrace innovation and best practices by setting the tone for the culture of caring that pervades the organization (Sørensen et al., 2020). Change management is similarly crucial since it guarantees that any proposed interventions or enhancements are seamlessly integrated into the healthcare systems already in place. The planned diabetes self-management education and support program draws significantly on the design and implementation of leadership and change management techniques. The program’s initiative is effectively guided by visionary leadership. The goal was to teach patients and their loved ones how to take charge of their diabetes management in order to boost health outcomes and cut expenditures. The development team received the direction and inspiration they required from their leadership. Further, the existing status of diabetes treatment was evaluated, the need for change was determined, and a methodical strategy for rolling out the program was developed using change management principles. The approach examined the potential opposition to change and handled it through communication and training.

The program was created with a moral compass that was nursing ethics. First, it adheres to patient independence. Informed consent and patient autonomy are emphasized as essential to ethical nursing practice. The program’s goal is to have patients and their families take an active role in controlling diabetes. Their autonomy in healthcare decision-making is protected, and their priorities and beliefs are given due weight. Beneficence and non-maleficence are also crucial nursing ethics that must be followed when rolling out the program. Nursing ethics encourage healthcare practitioners to behave in patients’ best interests while avoiding damage (Varkey, 2021). The program aims to improve the health of people with diabetes by providing information, support, and care. Potential danger, such as complications, was addressed by emphasizing individualized care plans and education.

Strategies for Communication and Collaboration

In this scenario, the patient is my diabetic father. One crucial aspect of his care will be his immediate family, which includes close relatives and caretakers. For diabetes management to be comprehensive and productive, their participation is essential. The input of the family and caregivers helps guarantee holistic care. Involving the patient and his family in the decision-making process ensures that the care plan incorporates his particular requirements, preferences, and circumstances (Bombard et al., 2018). This all-encompassing strategy helps make diabetes care efficient overall. It also ensures greater compliance. Patients are more likely to stick to a treatment plan if they feel they have a hand in creating it. The results of the diabetic patient’s care might be improved by including him and his family as much as possible in his treatment. Including the family caregivers also offers emotional support to them and the patient. Dealing with diabetes may be challenging and stressful. Having his loved ones involved in his care can help him cope with the disease’s emotional and psychological effects.

It is vital to use best-practice tactics to promote efficient communication and collaboration with the patient and his family. Shared decision-making is a practical approach to guaranteeing communication and collaboration and makes patients feel treated humanely (Abdulrhim et al., 2021). The patient and his family should be involved in treatment decisions. Care plans, treatment alternatives, and alterations to one’s way of life should all be discussed openly. Including them in the decision-making process makes patients and their loved ones more likely to follow doctors’ orders. Patient and family education is also critical. Thorough instructions on handling diabetes should be given to the patient and family. In addition, the patient and family should be encouraged to actively manage the condition by providing them with information, workshops, or referrals to a diabetes educator. Maintaining open lines of communication is also a strategy to adopt (Levengood et al., 2019). It is essential to talk to the patient and his family regularly. In-person conferences, phone conversations, and encrypted messaging apps fall within this category. Keeping everyone in the loop on the patient’s condition and any necessary changes to the treatment plan is essential.

Contributions of State Board Nursing Practice Standards

The planned diabetes self-management education and support program should be developed following state board nursing practice standards and corporate or governmental rules. These standards and procedures guarantee that the intervention complies with known best practices, legal obligations, and ethical values. Standards for nursing care are set and enforced by individual states’ boards of nursing (Wisconsin Technical College System, n.d.). In order to ensure that patients get safe and effective care, these guidelines must be strictly adhered to by all healthcare providers. Registered and advanced practice nurses provide care and education within their legal bounds because the intervention is consistent with their scope of practice. The guideline will help avoid legal or ethical issues in diabetes management. In addition, guidelines for conducting in-depth patient evaluations may be found in the standards for nursing practice. The program incorporates these evaluation concepts to design care plans based on specific patient requirements, as assessed by certified nursing experts. The American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) clinical practice guidelines are well-known and have significantly impacted the development of the intervention. The ADA examines the research on exercise and diabetes and makes specific recommendations for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). The suggestions for diabetes treatment and education are based on evidence and included in these guidelines. Improved glycemic control is connected with nursing practice standards and policies, such as those found in the programs for patients with diabetes. Better control of blood sugar levels means less chance of diabetes-related problems.

Improvement of Quality of Care, Enhancement of Patient Safety, And Reduction of Costs

The proposed Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) program is meant to raise the quality of care by focusing on patient education, empowerment, and individualized care regimens. People with diabetes benefit greatly from DSME because it equips them to make and maintain the kind of healthy lifestyle adjustments that have been proven to positively impact their health (Ernawati et al., 2021). Further, patient safety must always come first when dealing with diabetes. By decreasing the likelihood of complications and adverse events, the program improves patient safety. Structured education focusing on hypoglycemia identification can minimize moderate and severe hypoglycemia without affecting metabolic control in people with type 1 diabetes (Iqbal & Heller, 2018). The DSMES program’s primary value is its ability to lower healthcare expenditures. Patients who take responsibility for their diabetes treatment are more likely to save money by avoiding unnecessary medical interventions. Coordinated approaches to care, like team-based care (TBC), have been created by several provider networks to achieve the “Triple Aim” of lowering healthcare costs without compromising the quality of treatment or the patient experience (Levengood et al., 2019). information on the monetary cost of diabetes may be used to calculate how much money the intervention could save.

Care quality, patient safety, and cost benchmark data from various sources can be used to track and assess the proposed intervention’s efficacy. The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) are two examples of healthcare quality organizations that collect and publish data on quality measurements, patient safety indicators, and the cost-effectiveness of healthcare treatments. On the other hand, cost information, hospitalization rates, and clinical quality metrics for diabetes management are all available from government agencies, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Substantial evidence suggests that the planned DSMES program has the potential to increase the quality of treatment, improve patient safety, and lower healthcare costs for both the healthcare system and people living with diabetes.

Policy decisions made by governments, non-profits, and hospitals are crucial in improving healthcare and reducing health inequalities. Governments, health institutions, and organizations have discovered that taking some medications and embracing lifestyle behavioral adjustments might prevent or delay the emergence of life-threatening diseases such as diabetes. Konchak et al. (2016) verify that the USA of America has approved the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which advocates for good health behavior to minimize the chances of acquiring diabetes and improve the quality of health for people with diabetes. The Affordable Care Act ensures that all individuals receive free preventative care. These treatments include diabetes testing and therapies like nutritional counseling and obesity screening. This guarantees that those at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes can receive the lifesaving preventative treatment they need. In addition, Protecting the confidentiality of patients’ health records is a primary goal of HIPAA. Integrating technology and electronic health information into diabetes management raises concerns about patient privacy and security. The Privacy Rule of HIPAA creates guidelines for securing patients’ health records and other personally identifiable information. HIPAA compliance is crucial for protecting patient privacy in the DSMES program due to the inclusion of remote monitoring and communication tools.

Application of Technology, Care Coordination, and Usage of Community Resources

Technology plays a vital role in diabetes management, providing tools that enable individuals and healthcare providers to monitor, regulate, and adapt to the illness. Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and blood glucose meters give patients a real-time readout of their glucose levels (Janapala et al., 2019). When used for self-management, these devices give helpful information that may be used to modify treatment and lifestyle appropriately. Patient-provider communication can also be facilitated remotely through telemedicine services and mobile health applications. Constant contact aids both the patient and the medical facility manage the patient’s condition. On the other hand, healthcare providers, patients, and their loved ones can all benefit from better communication and teamwork via care coordination. Care coordination, such as Health Information Exchange (HIE), plays a critical role in diabetes management by ensuring patients receive coordinated and comprehensive treatment. Secure access to patient information is made possible through electronic health records and health information exchange platforms (Keshta & Odeh, 2021). This supports continuity of treatment, lowering the risk of medical mistakes and ensuring that all team members are aware. Self-management, diet, and exercise advice can be covered in community diabetes education programs offered by local clinics, community centers, and healthcare groups. Diabetic support groups could also help those with the disease feel less alone by providing a safe space where they may talk to others who understand what they are going through.

In conclusion, leadership and change management are essential to resolving the diabetes problem. Nursing ethics and practice standards should guide them. Patients and their families are given the ability to actively manage their disease as a consequence of effective interventions such as the DSMES program. The program ultimately improves the quality of treatment, patient safety, and cost savings. The effectiveness of the intervention is further increased by using both technological and community-based resources. The all-encompassing strategy is necessary for addressing the complex and ever-increasing diabetes problem.


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Bombard, Y., Baker, G. R., Orlando, E., Fancott, C., Bhatia, P., Casalino, S., Onate, K., Denis, J.-L., & Pomey, M.-P. (2018). Engaging patients to improve quality of care: A systematic review. Implementation Science13(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0784-z

Ernawati, U., Wihastuti, T. A., & Utami, Y. W. (2021). Effectiveness of diabetes self-management education (DSME) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients: Systematic literature review. Journal of Public Health Research10(2), 198–202. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2240

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Janapala, R. N., Jayaraj, J. S., Fathima, N., Kashif, T., Usman, N., Dasari, A., Jahan, N., & Sachmechi, I. (2019). Continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Cureus11(9). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5634

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Mental Health Nursing – Schizophrenia


Over the years, there has been a surge in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. It entails the disruptions between cognitive aptitudes and social functions. This article seeks to identify causative factors and treatment strategies related to schizophrenia, offering a platform enabling efficient comprehension of the disorder. The article also illustrates various research information on epidemiological, genetic, and neuroimaging, offering clinical treatment for the mental disorder and information on the knowledge gaps. Currently, the disorder is treated with pharmaceutical antipsychotics. However, innovations in neuroimaging and genetics have accelerated treatments with the integration of knowledge from various departments to accommodate circuit mechanisms. These are potential treatment strategies that might reduce and help the early diagnosis of the disorder,

Article summary

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder affiliated with negative symptoms. Individuals diagnosed with the disorder portray symptoms such as social withdrawal, demotivation, hallucinations, and a decline in cognitive functions. Most diagnoses are recognized during early adulthood. The disorder has a prevalence of approximately 1%, contributing to the increase in healthcare costs. The prevalence of the disorder contributes to a rise in healthcare costs, with an average of $150 billion (McCutcheon et al., 2022). The high costs to maintain the disorder lead to increased mortality rates. According to the JAMA Psychiatry, an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia has a 15% decrease in life expectancy compared to the general demographics. Moreover, the disorder accompanies various mental health issues such as suicide, anxiety, and depression. The review highlights that around 5%- 10% of individuals suffering from the disorder are susceptible to suicide.

The article depicts that the disorder can stem from the integration of genetic factors and early exposure to perinatal complications, which will later impact an individual’s cognitive development. Although the diagnosis of the disorder is identified during early adulthood, various research indicates that its origin commences during cognitive development. For instance, exposure to maternal and obstetric difficulties and inadequate access to a healthy diet during pregnancy can disrupt cognitive development, increasing their chances of schizophrenia. Furthermore, strategies using gene expression information of 500 individuals in contrast with the general population depict that genetics and environmental factors increase the disruption of the neurodevelopment causing schizophrenia compared to others. In addition, other factors, such as cortical excitatory, increase the risk of developing the disorder. For example, most individuals show signs of the disorder before age 16 and depict signs of cognitive challenges.

Although antipsychotic drugs such as D2 blockers are commonly used and accepted within the system, various innovations and developments have led to the implementation of probable strategies to treat the disorder. These treatments utilize neuroimaging, genetics, and research to identify the symptoms and integrate knowledge from various fields. Integrating various skills and knowledge enhances the translation of innovations into implementations, benefiting the treatment of the disorder.

Articles Critique

The article uses several alternative hypotheses to depict the disorder’s possible causes and treatment. The article highlights four aspects of the causes and potential treatment of the disorder. This is a strength since it uses the alternative to provide inductive inferences. Furthermore, it uses visuals to illustrate the scientific studies done in prior years. Using various hypotheses allows the article to identify the affiliations between the variables, which aids in the prediction strategies. The prediction strategies are based on empirical research denoting comprehensive topic comprehension. Although the articles use various empirical research to portray their arguments, it fails to anticipate future objections to the treatment options, which can cause doubts. For instance, it mentions psychological treatments which can reduce psychotic symptoms associated with the disorder but does not anticipate objections to the treatments. I recommend the article since it uses visuals and relevant empirical secondary research to conclude its findings. The aspects ensure precise comprehension and portrayal of the causative factors and treatments of schizophrenia.


The information considers the roles of various actors in altering neurodevelopment to prompt an individual to schizophrenia. It also indicates various treatment options and their impacts on the patient—for instance, the psychological treatments which help an individual address and reduce stress factors accelerating the disorder. The article illustrates that the treatment of the disorder affiliates with D2 receptor blockers. However, various cognitive development developments have increased knowledge integration across various fields.


Robert A. McCutcheon, T. R. (2022). Schizophrenia- An overview. JAMA Psychiatry.