Specialisation: Mental Healthcare

Gender Stereotypes in Mental Health


Women suffer a higher incidence of many mental health disorders than men, including depression and anxiety. They also have greater rates of eating disorders as well as PTSD and self-harm behavior. However, women are especially disadvantaged by gender biases and stereotypes that permeate mental health care in general. They face many obstacles to diagnosis and effective treatment due to these attitudes toward them as a group or regarding their condition. Thus, women tend to have their histories of trauma overlooked and symptoms ignored or dismissed by health providers on the basis of gender stereotypes. Moreover, women are often given excessive doses of sedatives rather than getting the right kind of trauma counseling to treat the root problem. Eliminating these barriers and stereotypes is key to women’s mental health.

Differences in Diagnosis

Gender roles and stereotypes about emotionality underpin differences in mental health diagnoses between the sexes. Because most of them seek help and are more willing to see a doctor, women end up being diagnosed with internalizing disorders like depression and anxiety, which fit the stereotypical image that they are emotional ladies (Rajkumar, 2020). In contrast, externalizing disorders that feature symptoms such as aggression and substance abuse are more typically diagnosed in males according to the belief that men should restrain their vulnerable emotions (McLean et al., 2011). Significantly, these biases reduce actual pain suffered in both men and women with atypical symptoms for their gender. For instance, because externalized problems are thought to be characteristic of normal masculine behavior, women with such disorders often receive inadequate treatment. And while men’s depression is likewise largely unrecognized (probably due more than anything else to the stereotyped belief that males lack emotion), it might as well not even exist for all anyone knows. It is only by changing and expanding narrow conceptions of concepts for male disorders and female disorders Rethinking needs to be restored to all people correctly.

Stereotypes also play a role in the underdiagnosis of certain disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorder (ASD), believed to occur primarily or exclusively among males. High intensity of emotions and mimicry, reenactment (of social behavior), which are more commonly associated with females, make it easier for women’s ASD to be overlooked (Bargiela et al., 2016). Women, therefore, get diagnosed much later in life than men, if at all. It isn’t easy to intervene early enough (Thomas, 2023). Late or missed diagnoses such as these show how gender stereotypes favor women’s supposed social skills, limiting the extent to which others see them as disabled. Recognizing that symptoms may take different forms in males and females is necessary when equal recognition of disorders.

But even besides any particular diagnosis, the prevailing diagnostic models are inadequate overall. They omit much of women’s psychological disturbance because they are predominantly a function of men’s experiences. For example, highly diffuse symptoms involving the body like somatic complaints, do not fit neatly within categories of discrete diagnoses designed for more circumscribed issues related to cognition or emotion (Ussher, 2011). Grouping a wide array of expressions such as headaches, stomach discomforts, pain, and fatigue (medically unexplained symptoms) hides and shares psychological foundations rooted commonly enough in trauma and overlooking real disability. Gender-biased assumptions that men’s symptoms are more relevant to underlying conditions. In contrast, women’s expressions of pain have little substance, aside from hysterical exaggerations, resulting in missing the boat. Embracing more totalistic, woman-centered theoretical perspectives inclusive of polyvariant women’s modes of embodied mental pain would help mute these trends toward minimization and unimportance (Ussher, 2011). Accurately reflecting women’s experienced reality within mental health care systems also finds its core in this reconception of what can be treated as legitimate psychiatrically relevant phenomena.

Differences in Treatment

Stereotypes of gender affect not only the diagnosis but also women’s mental health treatment. Complex PTSD is more prevalent among women, but rates are overlooked or minimized in treatment programs (Thomas, 2023; Pettersen et al., 2023). This socialization causes compliant traits in women-socially constructed as patients with weak wills–to be emphasized in practice, leading to the underreporting or even ignoring of violence and coercion at a community level. Intervention is then directed toward addressing individual factors rather than appropriate trauma interventions (Thomas, 2023). A key step in taking a gender-informed, person-centered approach to care is understanding how women are especially prone to serious events like childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence.

Gender also affects pharmacological treatment. Compared with men, women are overprescribed sedatives (Mathew et al., 2022; Ussher, 2011) and are more vulnerable to side effects they experience. Socialization also breeds a negative general attitude toward female anger, and sedatives are overused along with this sentiment. Women who show any irritability at just having been treated as an inferior human species may be given tranquilizers for merely being too independent (Ussher, 2011). Furthermore, women’s lower average body weight exacerbates the side effect risks in initial treatment. Yet clinical trials used to determine dosing standards relied almost entirely on male test subjects (Perlis 2016). But even as progress is being made along the path covering seemingly endless ground toward gender balance in research, social norms and customs shaped by deep-rooted patriarchy are also holding back further levels of female advancement. Moreover, biases built into evidence-based treatment for women amplify these shortcomings from their origins to today’s medical environment over many generations.

Barriers to accessing alternative healing spaces also impact women’s mental healthcare and outcomes. While standard pharmacological and psychotherapy treatments remain anchored in the medical model, approaches like peer support groups, nature-based practices, holistic nursing, art therapy, and spiritual counseling can powerfully facilitate resilience for those facing oppression or existential struggles (Thomas, 2023). However, regulations around professional licensing and reimbursement, combined with a lack of promotion or availability in marginalized communities, reduce participation opportunities for low-income women and women of color (Thomas, 2023). Strengthening alternative healing options better reflecting diverse cultures’ practices and recognitions of mental wellness as interdependent with the community could expand choice and relevance. Making biomedical institutions less gatekeeping of acceptable resources makes space for women to seek multiple avenues of treatment according to personal values, preferences, and access barriers.

Lastly, social variables and stereotypes are the other factors influencing higher dropout rates among women in groups participating in psychotherapy. This is an integral part of treating many diseases (Thomas, 2023). Because women’s identities are predominantly relational, psychotherapy groups might be a suitable opportunity for connection and mutual support; only the make-up of the relationship between participants seems to obstruct this (Rajkumar 2020). The fact that men dominate spaces of discussion means gendered socialization, which leads women to defer way too much and not say enough in the presence of males, gets recapitulated (Thomas, 2023), making it hard for anyone to participate meaningfully. Suppose observers and facilitators of groups need to take intentional steps to construct norms regulating egomania and cloying flattery. In that case, psychotherapy sessions may become a part of the gender injustice that women must endure during their healing process.


Reflecting disparities in diagnosis and treatment, the outcomes of living with mental illness differ substantially for women compared to men. Overall, women with psychiatric disabilities have heightened vulnerability to assault, greater functional impairment in work and education, and increased poverty and homelessness relative to men (Gupta et al., 2023). The gender pay gap combines with interrupted career trajectories from early-onset “female” disorders like depression to severely limit women’s financial stability (Rajkumar, 2020). Simultaneously, caregiving obligations and moral double standards judging mothers with mental illness especially harshly further harm women’s social outcomes compared to men (Dolman et al., 2013).

Most tragically, women’s outsized rates of sexual victimization intersect with inadequate treatment to produce disproportionate risks for suicide (Gupta et al., 2023). Though more likely to experience suicidal thoughts, women demonstrate much lower rates of fatal attempts due to using less lethal means; however, in the context of supportive relationships, trauma counseling, and psychotropic monitoring received less consistently by women, severe self-harm remains an amplified threat (McLean et al., 2011). Improving gender equity in mental healthcare access and practices constitutes an essential suicide prevention imperative for women.

Furthermore, the stigma that comes with mental illness particularly adds to other obstacles women face in accessing health care due to economic marginalization or demands of motherhood and caring for others. Women who are economically dependent or are in charge of someone else out of fear that their psychiatric history will become known and used against them at the workplace, in courtrooms, or on social media when they seek treatment (Dolman et al., 2013). With the power differentials women experience across domains, it is necessarily a vulnerable act to have your diagnosed condition documented. Women in underfunded public health systems are compelled to play down symptoms as a mere response of the body to stress, spending what little resources they can on basic medical services for their children. Stigma, then, combines with gendered caregiving roles and economic pressures to raise the danger that women’s mental healthcare will fall by the wayside (Dolman et al., 2013). Public education is still needed to reduce stigma. Confidentiality must also be protected by law. Both will favorably influence care-seeking behaviors and outcomes.

Effects on Women with and Without Mental Illness

These stereotypes about women generally as irrational, unstable, and given to hysteria are important factors in reducing the misinterpretation of disorders that afflict them (Ussher, 2011). Perhaps even more disturbing, when women are indeed suffering from conditions like depression or anxiety (Thomas, 2023), their anguish may be dismissed by those close to them–spouses and family members–or minimized by doctors as a normal female response that need not necessitate any intervention. These intense feelings, if not checked by early diagnosis and compassionate support at the right time, will further deteriorate for women, especially since these sad emotions are often assumed to reflect femininity-part of being a woman—rather than disabilities in need of care (Ussher 2011). For example, clear-cut self-injurious behaviors like anorexia or drug abuse often pass with the explanation that it is hormone related or a response to stress–even patients who die do not necessarily receive recognition of disorders (Dolman et al., 2016). These dysfunctional social reactions based on time-honored gender stereotypes aggravate symptoms and discourage women from seeking treatment that might help relieve the burden.

Also, the cultural stereotypes that women are fragile chicks become enmeshed in legal and social tissue paternalism to enhance further disadvantaging of mentally ill females (Bargiela et al., 2016). Mentally ill women are thought to be completely dependent, powerless decision-makers; decisions about medication, hospitalization, and finances do not belong in their hands (Ussher 2011). They needed external control over people’s most intimate lives–including choice of husband and reproductive rights. Officially given these choices were made on behalf of the mentally handicapped, regardless of how well-intentioned those constraints may be (Vanesa Hervías Parejo & Branko Radulović, 2023), by taking away autonomy and dignity precisely at the time when self-determination is most needed to achieve some measure of coping or healing. But as the weaker sex, assumptions about women’s incompetence at least dramatize that violence toward them is a way to uphold order (Bargiela et al., 2016). And so stereotypes push women toward disempowerment and dehumanization that aid in no one’s recovery from the inside out.

In addition to those with diagnosable psychiatric conditions, all women are placed under scrutiny and given punishments for exhibiting intense emotions that corrode self-trust and freedom (Ussher 2011). The widespread tendency to ascribe minor sadness, anger, or anxiety in women to psychological problems and even subclinical mental instability legitimizes the delegitimation of anything coming from a woman (Vanesa Hervías Parejo & Branko Radulović, 2023). Instead of being told that emotional reactions are appropriate responses to external pressures from stress, injustice los,s, or complex human circumstances (Thomas, 2023), women find their inner states regularly denied as evidence they lack rationality. In time, these dynamics lead to self-censorship, misunderstanding, and shame for feelings that, in their own right, are nothing more than deserving of empathy. The cultural double standard that permits men’s intense feelings but medicinizes the same responses in women insidiously affects and limits true self-expression (Dolman et al., 2013).

Likewise, the collective stereotype of women as ruled by emotions provides an excuse to exclude women as a group from significant civic participation, economic authority, and political leadership(Vanesa Hervías Parejo & Branko Radulović, 2023). The assumption that women lack sound judgment needed for STEM professions, business executive roles, or heads of state positions retains currency even without any mental health diagnoses, as feminine emotionality itself is framed as handicapping rationality (Ussher, 2011). Unlike men who can readily display anger without social penalty, ambitious women quickly earn labels like abrasive, mercurial, or unhinged that conveniently affirm beliefs they intrinsically fail leadership tests(Vanesa Hervías Parejo & Branko Radulović, 2023). Until society confronts biases positioning women’s normal emotional lives as liabilities regardless of psychological health assessments, systemic barriers to power unfairly persist.

Combating Stereotypes and Improving Women’s Mental Health

Progress toward equitable mental healthcare requires coordinated changes at clinical, institutional, and sociocultural levels. Psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and other providers must increase their awareness of gender biases’ impacts on assessment, diagnosis, and treatment (Perlis, 2016). Professional training programs should strengthen competence in trauma-informed, gender-aware care models emphasizing empowerment and understanding lived experiences in a social context. Similarly, clinical supervision and quality assurance practices must prioritize sensitivity to gender issues at individual and systemic levels (Fisher & Ryan, 2021).

At institutional levels, mental health agencies and government bodies directing research and policy should implement new standards, guidelines, and funding requirements designed to promote gender equity and close gaps in evidence and services (Perlis, 2016). For instance, clinical trials establishing pharmacological best practices could mandate gender-representative samples, while improved funding could expand access and reduce obstacles to community-based treatment for marginalized groups like trauma survivors. Broad initiatives across education, justice, healthcare, and other sectors to dismantle barriers facing women with psychiatric disabilities may also improve functional outcomes.

Moreover, these changes in advocacy and public policy should directly target structural sources of trauma causing women’s mental health to be destabilized out of proportion with their numbers, like domestic violence or workplace harassment and discrimination; barriers preventing the education or economic participation for many girls a decade earlier simply because they lacked female teachers capable of encouraging them not give up hope that one day someone would care about (Gupta et al., 2023). Avoiding the problems such as adverse psychological effects that arise from systemic gender oppression and providing resources to aid women’s developmental growth will help establish emotionally healthy communities of men and women where everyone can succeed. Clinical and cultural efforts to change landscapes for women’s well-being certainly need to be complemented by holistic reform agendas spanning healthcare, economics, education, and social welfare with the aim of enabling self-actualization free from vulnerability imposed by gender (Thomas, 2023).

Lastly, fighting against the restrictive and discriminatory gender norms upon which mental health stereotypes are based requires advocacy and activism that targets culture and consciousness. Historically, one of the main causes has been public education campaigns that teach about the broad array of how psychiatric illness presents itself. These can generate awareness and understanding to help combat stigma (Fisher & Ryan, 2021). Instead of just trotting out the stereotypes, storytelling humanizes women’s well-informed battles with mental illness in memoir or journalism, film, or even visual art supplies weapons to produce more nuanced accounts and narratives that demand dignity–proof enough against talkative gossip queens wide open to misconceptions. At the core of all strategies for promoting women’s psychological well-being is collective responsibility toward a consenting environment in which every single individual can exercise voice without being limited by gender biases (Vanesa Hervías Parejo & Branko Radulović, 2023).


Women’s mental healthcare faces risks and barriers that are unique to them, one aspect of which is reflected in different gender stereotypes from those applied toward men. Females may be especially vulnerable to misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment, excessive functional disability, and higher suicide risk due to biases about female emotionality, irrational behavior patterns, and relational roles. At the same time, ableist notions of disordered femininity provide an excuse to restrict all women’s autonomy and status. However to make progress, multidimensional efforts are necessary in countering the negative impression of gender within clinical practice and public discourse. We need loving expressions that have been missing from society for a long time–there must be an affirmation of respect for differences; women with mental illnesses’ identity is worth something like everyone else on earth. A comprehensive approach toward gender equity is an essential prerequisite for progress in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.


Albert, P. (2015). Why is depression more prevalent in women? Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience40(4), 219–221. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.150205

Bargiela, S., Steward, R., & Mandy, W. (2016). The Experiences of Late-diagnosed Women with Autism Spectrum Conditions: An Investigation of the Female Autism Phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders46(10), 3281–3294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2872-8

Dolman, C., Jones, I. R., & Howard, L. M. (2016). Women with bipolar disorder and pregnancy: factors influencing their decision-making. BJPsych Open2(5), 294–300. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.003079

Fisher, A. N., & Ryan, M. K. (2021). Gender inequalities during COVID-19. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations24(2), 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430220984248

Gesi, C., Migliarese, G., Torriero, S., Capellazzi, M., Omboni, A. C., Cerveri, G., & Mencacci, C. (2021). Gender Differences in Misdiagnosis and Delayed Diagnosis among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder with No Language or Intellectual Disability. Brain Sciences11(7), 912. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11070912

Gupta, M., Madabushi, J. S., & Gupta, N. (2023). Critical Overview of Patriarchy, Its Interferences With Psychological Development, and Risks for Mental Health. Cureus15(6). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.40216

Mathew, B. S., Thomas, S. P., & Kallivayalil, R. A. (2022). Gender differences in bipolar disorder- a cross-sectional study in central Kerala. Kerala Journal of Psychiatry35(1), 288–288. https://doi.org/10.30834/kjp.35.1.2022.288

McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research45(8), 1027–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.03.006

Perlis, R. H. (2016). Abandoning personalization to get to precision in the pharmacotherapy of depression. World Psychiatry15(3), 228–235. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20345

Pettersen, C., Wanamaker, K. A., Garvey, M. A., Brown, S. L., & Goodwin, J. (2023). Mental Disorder and Women’s Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis. Feminist Criminology19(1), 25–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/15570851231213100

Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry52(102066), 102066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066

Thomas, S. P. (2023). Mental Health of the World’s Women in 2023. Issues in Mental Health Nursing44(8), 681–681. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2023.2237381

Ussher, J. M. (2011). The madness of women: myth and experience. Routledge.

Vanesa Hervías Parejo, & Branko Radulović. (2023). Public Policies on Gender Equality. Springer Textbooks in Law, 405–428. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14360-1_12