Specialisation: Mass Media

Media and Social Media


This essay contrasts the communication models of Mass Media and social media, discussing their effects on transmission. Unlike mass media’s broadcast style delivery from a central source, social media offers an interactive space where user-generated content thrives in individual engagement windows. This article also delves into various challenges social media poses, including its adverse effects on users, such as mental health implications, dependency on validation, and spreading false information. It further discusses relationship factors, which include shallow engagements, privacy issues, and personal rapport-building strategies offered by these platforms. The paper argues that unhealthy dialogue is amplified through political polarization agendas driving echo-chambered narratives laced with unreliable data via social media tools. Final thoughts emphasize beneficial use patterns focusing on critical contemplation while promoting actions to counteract harmful consequences potentiated by misuse or overuse – thereby encouraging better digital interactions cultivating mental wellness and myriad viewpoints despite recognizing potential drawbacks.


In today’s interconnected society, communication and information transfer are intricate processes. Social and mass media significantly impact how we perceive, consume, and share information. Despite being equally efficient communication tools, they differ significantly in their effect, organization, and scope. Traditional mass media, like radio, newspapers, and television, are characterized by centralized control and a one-to-many communication approach (Aïmeur et al., 2023). On the other hand, social media creates a paradigm shift toward many-to-many communication by utilizing digital platforms to make user-generated content possible. Social media has unique issues, yet mass media and social media are complementary rather than interchangeable (Evans, 2019). Though social media has fundamentally changed how information is exchanged and accessed, opinions regarding its impact on individuals, relationships, and society are divided. This study will examine the distinctions between mainstream media and social media while illuminating the difficulties and complexities brought about by the widespread usage of social media.


Mass media, especially conventional forms of media, provide a one-way flow of information; viewers get news stories, but the news organizations have yet to get a direct response from the viewers. Various sales methods can be employed when promoting products and services through print and broadcast media. These methods include print ads, direct mail, television, radio, banner ads, door-to-door sales, billboards, etc. Many businesses have relied on these strategies for a long time and they have always paid off. Television and print ads continue to be highly effective marketing tools (Aïmeur et al., 2023). Businesses continue to pour billions of dollars into traditional media advertising, even though this strategy has started to lose ground in the face of digital media.

Conversely, “social media” refers to online platforms facilitating user-generated content creation and sharing and social networking. Keeping in touch with loved ones is one of many reasons people use social media; others use it to connect with people from all over the world. Typically, when we hear the term “social media,” the only platforms that come to mind are Twitter and Facebook. Networks for media sharing (Snapchat et al., etc.), discussion forums (Quora, Reddit), networks for bookmarking and content curation (Flipboard and Pinterest), and networks for blogging and publishing (Tumblr and WordPress) are all part of social media. We can instantly share our views, opinions, photos, and videos on these platforms.

Problems Associated with Social Media

The extensive use of social media has a detrimental effect on the mental health and sense of self of a significant number of people. Because the content has been carefully chosen, users could be influenced to compare themselves to others and suffer from low self-esteem due to the unrealistic expectations that are placed on them. Constant exposure to carefully crafted images and narratives can cause a sense of self-worth linked to online acceptance, resulting in a need for validation through the number of likes, comments, or followers. Constantly looking for approval can result in compulsive behaviors, which can aggravate mental health conditions like sadness and anxiety. Furthermore, the unchecked spread of misinformation and propaganda on social media can have an impact on people’s mental health.

Social media can hinder in-person connections despite its many advantages. Because online interactions usually replace in-person interactions, there is a chance of shallow relationships and misinterpretations due to the lack of nonverbal cues. Furthermore, the prevailing culture of sharing and comparing one’s personal life on social media can lead to jealousy and insecure feelings developing in partnerships. People’s private and public lives are becoming increasingly blurred, raising privacy concerns that can lead to relationship conflicts and trust issues.

Social media contributes to the growth of echo chambers and societal divisiveness. “Bubbles” are created when algorithmic content prioritization makes people isolated and exposed to fewer ideas and information contradicting their preconceived notions. A social phenomenon known as the echo-chamber effect makes it difficult for people to understand and communicate with one another (Evans, 2019). Furthermore, false information and rumours can spread swiftly on social media sites, escalating high emotions or fanning the flames of public unrest.


Differentiating social media from mass media shows the upheaval in communication paradigms. Unlike mass media, which is managed centrally and extensively distributed, social media is decentralized and interactive, changing how information is created, discussed, and consumed. However, social media’s rapid growth has caused many issues affecting people, relationships, and society. Social media may alter self-perception, mental health, and validation addiction. Relationships, which foster short interactions and privacy concerns, illustrate the challenges of managing personal connections in the digital age. Complex issues demand collaboration. Social media harm must be mitigated by careful use, critical thinking, and fact-checking. Social media’s impact on people and society must be acknowledged to establish a well-rounded online environment that encourages positive relationships, mental health, and varied opinions.


Aïmeur, E., Amri, S., & Brassard, G. (2023). Fake news, disinformation and misinformation in social media: A review. Social Network Analysis and Mining13(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-023-01028-5

Cornell University. (2023, October 16). LibGuides: Misinformation, disinformation, and propaganda: Source bias. Cornell University Research Guides – LibGuides at Cornell University. https://guides.library.cornell.edu/evaluate_news/source_bias

Evans, J. (2019, December 6). Mass media vs. social media. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2019/12/02/mass-media-vs-social-media/