Specialisation: History

The Multi-Faceted Campaign of Alexander the Great

Introduction

According to the ancient and magnificent Spartan ruler, in the year 334 BCE, Alexander the Great started his invasion of the Middle East, one of the most pivotal events in the history of the whole region. War campaigns, cultural neologisms, diplomacy, and administration reforms were constituent parts of his undertaking. At first, he drew much attention to his military skills by using them in the battles he won. It started in the first battle, the Battle of Granicus in 334 BCE, where he beat the Persian army, showing his superiority in Anatolia. Nevertheless, Alexander’s policy also consisted of warfare and was a fusion; he wore Persian clothing, and when his Greek soldiers married Persian noblewomen, He employed this tool to promote harmony between otherwise distinct peoples and ensure that they became part and parcel of his empire.

Body

Alexander’s military conquest into the inner regions of the Persian Empire served as the stage of manifestation of his unique diplomatic capabilities. In 333 BCE, he finally met the Persian King Darius III on the land of Issus and once again became a battlewinner. After that, instead of dramatically unveiling Greek culture, Alexander tried to adopt a more pacifist approach (Poyonov, 2023). He only controlled Assyria, and then only for a short period. Among the cities that kept their independence, they spent several months in a state of war, and then Xerxes pardoned the cities that surrendered. Thus, a sense of security started to prevail among local populations. The tolerance policy was the factor, among others, that helped settle the seized settlements and incorporate the conquerors into the process of conquering lands (Saviello, 2023). Likewise, his action of taking up the tradition of wearing Persian clothes and preferring Persian aristocrats to occupy positions in his court provides an example of his solid cultural tactfulness.

By 331 BCE, the conquest of Alexander had seen its culmination at the Gaugamela battle, which ended in his defeat of Darius III, consequently dispelling any form of Persian Emperorship (Classen, 2021). Nevertheless, Alexander’s deeds were attributed to more than just bloody conquests. He set out to conduct an intensive administrative reform, giving rise to a new system of satrapies, which meant particular territories were now endowed with their overlords and governors (Chugg, 2020). Alexander, therefore, chose the local lords to fill this position of provincial governorship, which is proof of his pragmatic mind. By giving authority to reliable people knowledgeable in local traditions and languages, he tried to achieve stability and ensure being in power and effective administration throughout his empire (Heckel et al., 2020).

At the same time, he initiated and implemented reforms related to his administration, and he also followed a policy of cultural assimilation, promoting the use of Greek language and culture across his dominions. He started many cities, notably Alexandria in Egypt, the greatest, whose members, predominantly Greeks, represented and were actively involved in spreading Greek culture and trade (Martin,2020). These cities mediated the relationship between East and West based on ideas and goods’ mobility and helped Hellenism spread throughout the Middle East.

Conclusion

Nevertheless, not all followed Alexander the Great in this achievement, and his lack of appreciation of the divinity of some of his Greek and Macedonian followers became a significant concern. The unexpected event occurred in 324 BCE when the empire general walked down the aisle with a Persian noblewoman during a mass wedding at the palace of Susa. This was considered a controversial step to cause further bewilderment among the Macedonian officers.

References

Alexander the Great: Crash Course World History, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LsrkWDCvxg

Chugg, A. M. (2020). The quest for the tomb of Alexander the Great. Lulu. com. https://www.academia.edu/download/37958335/Quest2Preview.pdf

Classen, A. (2021). The topic of Persia in the medieval literary imagination focuses on Middle High German literature. Ceræ: An Australasian Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies8, 35-65. https://search.informit.org/doi/pdf/10.3316/informit.573330858051132

Heckel, W., Naiden, F. S., Garvin, E. E., & Vanderspoel, J. (Eds.). (2021). A Companion to Greek Warfare. John Wiley & Sons. https://www.academia.edu/download/85763454/NANKOV_Blackwell_Thracian_Warfare_2021.pdf

Martin, A. B. (2020). The Dipsomania of Alexander the Great. https://repository.ihu.edu.gr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11544/29551/Aubrey.Martin_CAAHM_29-04-2020..pdf?sequence=1

Poyonov, A. B. (2023). Ancient Bactria in Greek sources. Scholar1(17), 121-127. https://researchedu.org/index.php/openscholar/article/download/4137/5373

Saviello, A. (2023, May). European Matter and Mughal Spirit. In Religion in Representations of Europe (pp. 145-166). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. https://www.academia.edu/download/63975712/The_Un_Holy_Russo_Chinese_alliance20200720-123263-1qbouyu.pdf

The Cold War/the Space Race Between the USSR and NASA

The Cold War, lasting for over fifty years, was characterized by intense intellectual and geopolitical struggles between the U.S. and communists (Davis). From many fronts, the war, assuming a multi-faceted nature, had political negotiations, military configurations, and cooperative strategies in various ways. The Space Race embodied superpowers’ rivalry as they competed fiercely in space exploration and technology to demonstrate their technological prowess and political system superiority.

After World War II, hostilities and technological advancements set in; the U.S. and the USSR launched into a race to dominate outer space. This contest propelled advances in space research and also became propaganda tools employed through media as both sides sought popular support for their political narratives. The Cold War influenced the Space Race greatly because it changed the course of technical innovation, scientific discoveries, and the foundation of global partnerships for space endeavors (Davis). The paper dives into the beginnings, successes, and effects of the Space Race, a crucial phase in civilization that exceeds the planet’s bounds and reflects the larger forces of the Cold War age.

Origins of the Space Race

The Space Race arose from the Cold War involving the U.S. and the USSR, the two most dominant nations following World War II. Over fifty years, the two rivals battled for dominance in a worldwide battle ranging from military strength to everyday necessities. Space was an important and fresh frontier for the Cold War struggle. Facing a curious globe, both ends attempted to show off their edge via remarkable accomplishments of rocketry and space missions. Additionally, inventions employed in spacecraft had other applicability. Rockets could propel munitions, and spacecraft could monitor rivals. The works of such key figures as German scientist Wernher Von Braun, who made significant contributions towards V-2 rocket production during WW2, played a crucial role in shaping the initial U.S. and Soviet space programs.

In addition, the triumphant debut of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 1 in 1957 marked a turning point in history. The incident displayed the Soviet Union’s scientific superiority while instilling a feeling of haste in the U.S. The dread of lagging in technological and armed forces spurred the United States to step up its space exploration ambitions (Davis). The Space Race began due to Cold War hostilities and World War II’s technological imprint. The battle for dominance in space research was an expression of the geopolitical conflict between the two major nations, with advances in technology and the know-how of pivotal figures pushing the contest into new territories.

Soviet Achievements

The first adventures of the USSR in space showed its advanced technology and international standing at the outset of the space race. The epoch-making contest started in 1957, when Sputnik 1, the first human spacecraft to orbit the Earth, was launched (Hanes). This historic Sputnik launch demonstrated the USSR’s technological capacity and had an immediate and profound impact on the geopolitical landscape; thus ushering in the start of the space race. However, in 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first astronaut ever in space; this is one of the most important landmarks in Soviet space travel history. Gagarin’s Vostok spaceship’s orbital journey proved that Russia led others to outer space and established man’s future travel possibilities (Hanes). Such achievement, honored worldwide, significantly increased the USSR’s reputation throughout the Cold War. Valentina Tereshkova became the first lady in space when she launched Vostok 6 in 1963 (Hanes). Alexei Leonov performed the inaugural spacewalk in 1965 as part of the Voskhod 2 expedition. Lunokhod 1, the USSR moon rover, arrived in 1970 and surveyed the moon’s terrain for almost twelve months until contact got lost in 1971 (Hanes).

In 1986, the USSR continued to be successful by launching the Mir space station, which demonstrated its long-lasting commitment to human spaceflight (Hanes). Mir’s operations, lasting till 2001, showcased the engineering prowess and life span of USSR’s space stations (Hanes). The first stages of the Space Race in which Russia was at the height of human-crewed spacecraft missions and still made a lasting impact upon its history. The launch of Sputnik 1 went on without a hitch, and Gagarin’s historic flight and setting up of the Mir space complex were all proof that the Soviet Union had no equal.

U.S. Response and NASA’s Role

In reaction to the USSR’s early accomplishments in the Space Race, the U.S. was enthusiastic about reestablishing its scientific dominance and reclaiming geopolitical leadership. The U.S. response to Sputnik 1 was the Jupiter-C rocket that put the small satellite into orbit. The launch of Explorer 1 drew international attention but was overshadowed by two satellites that USSR had already launched. With the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958, a new era of American space exploration fused numerous efforts under an umbrella (Davis). NASA was created as a way for America to streamline its space attempts through science and security considerations. Project Mercury, begun in 1958, was America’s first manned spacecraft program that focused on suborbital flights, involving Alan Shepard and John Glenn (Davis). Whereas Mercury stood for some significant hop-skip-jump in human space flight, the Apollo moon mission signified the USA’s global response. The Apollo initiative, which began in 1961 with the lofty objective of sending an individual to the moon, signified a never-before devotion to advancements in technology and exploration.

The peak of such attempts happened on July 20, 1969, when the Apollo 11 spacecraft made the historical Moon touchdown. Spacemen Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin’s landmark steps onto the moon’s ground met President John F. Kennedy’s objectives, marking a significant breakthrough in Space Race tactics (Davis). NASA’s influence stretched past national prestige to scientific studies, technological expansion, and worldwide cooperation. The agency’s continual attempts set the groundwork for succeeding space research expeditions, establishing the U.S.’s lasting legacy in exploring space.

Cold War Rhetoric and Propaganda

During the Cold War, the Space Race was a politically motivated contest, with the U.S. and the USSR using language and propaganda to buttress their geopolitical ideologies. Driven by an ambition to demonstrate dominance in technological advancement, science, and ideologies, both countries intentionally used media outreach and public connections tactics to influence world opinions. The launch of Sputnik in 1957 represented a watershed moment, raising concerns about Soviet technical domination. In reaction, the U.S. stepped up its attempts to convey a sense of technical proficiency and creativity. President Eisenhower’s government used media deliberately to underscore the tranquil character of American space exploration, aiming to counteract the USSR’s advances without reverting to confrontational statements (Muir-Harmony).

The Apollo program, culminating in the successful Moon landing, was a watershed point in American history. The United States touted its accomplishments as a monument to the advantages of democracy and capitalism as a whole, portraying the Space Race as a war not merely for scientific dominance but also the intellectual dominance of the capitalist state (Muir-Harmony). In contrast, the USSR propaganda emphasized socialism’s communal accomplishments, depicting space research as a symbol of the communist nation’s power and solidarity. Such discourse attempted to emphasize the USSR society’s collaborative and communal nature, challenging Western ideals of individualism. The Cold War discourse around the Space Race was a delicate balance of manipulative politics and propagandist attempts (Muir-Harmony). The ideological rivalry in the space race was an intrinsic element of the larger political conflict, affecting worldwide opinions of the two rivals and swaying popular thought during a critical period in world affairs.

Technological Advancements

The Space Race, fueled by fierce rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR, sparked a surge of scientific innovations with lasting effects transcending space research. The constant quest for dominance in technological and engineering capacities fueled development across many fields. Rocket technology, a key component of the Space Race, made extraordinary advances. Both countries made significant investments in creating strong and dependable rocketry, resulting in breakthroughs that were subsequently used in satellite launches, connectivity, and defense missile technology (Dunbar). The revolutionary influence of such discoveries went past the short-term goals of the Space Race, impacting worldwide telecommunication and armed forces plans. The search for human space missions necessitated advances in sustaining life, spaceship architecture, and navigation. Discoveries in miniaturized and lightweight objects gained significant factors affecting the growth of electronic devices and industrial technology.

The creation of technology for space exploration was a watershed point in the evolution of computer science. The necessity for dependable built-in computers suited to processing complicated computations under severe conditions accelerated innovations that later spread to commercial sectors, establishing the basis for modern technology. Scientific tools intended for space research expeditions produced revolutionary findings. Space astronomical instruments, including the Hubble Space Telescope, have transformed scientific knowledge of the cosmos, revealing unprecedented views of faraway galaxies and celestial processes. The Space Race’s everlasting significance is not simply the glorious milestones of moon landings but also the long-lasting technical impact it imprinted on humanity (Dunbar). The inventions sparked by a fierce rivalry among giants transformed the technological environment, having a significant influence on the industry, discoveries in science, and how humans view and connect with their surroundings today.

The Space Race as a Signal of the Cold War’s End

The final phases of the Space Race saw an understated evolution, mirroring the changing realities of the Cold War and ultimately developing into an emblem of cooperative effort instead of rivalry. During the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. and the USSR gradually transitioned from fierce competition to hesitant collaboration in space research (Muir-Harmony). The Apollo-Soyuz Test Initiative, which took place in 1972, constituted a watershed point in history when Western and the USSR spaceships met in space, signifying a reduction in Cold War animosity. The collaborative objective, made possible by the ratification of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Contract, demonstrated an exceptional degree of cooperation between the two superpowers, overcoming the ideological and politically motivated hurdles that had characterized the beginning phases of the Space Race (Muir-Harmony).

As the 1980s went on, geopolitics shifts, such as military-reducing negotiations and the ultimate collapse of the Cold War, opened the path for more excellent space partnerships. The Space Shuttle project established an avenue for global collaboration, with the U.S. shuttles transporting spacemen from a variety of countries, consisting of the USSR. By the 1990s, the Cold War was finally over, and the collapse of the USSR constituted a watershed moment in the pursuit of space. Previous rivals started collaborating on initiatives like the International Space Station (ISS), which represents worldwide collaboration in space (Muir-Harmony). The International Space Station exemplifies the possibility for partnership regardless of the most difficult sociopolitical factors, underlining space exploration’s revolutionary ability as an anchor of unity that transcends divides in politics.

Conclusion

The Cold War-era Space Race, which featured a fierce rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR, exemplifies the complex intersection of international relations, ideologies, and technological advances. The race for supremacy in space served as an incubator for technological developments, fueling swift developments in rocket technology, computing devices, and life-sustaining technologies while leaving a lasting imprint on humanity. The Space Race’s metaphorical importance peaked with the Apollo 11 Moon touchdown in 1969, an accomplishment that demonstrated the U.S. inventiveness while also emphasizing the nonviolent aspect of the space race. Nevertheless, as international disputes subsided in the last phases of the Cold War, the context of the Space Race evolved. Shared ventures like the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program and the International Space Station were symbols of a novel age marked by global collaboration instead of competition. In retrospect, the Space Race did not merely influence the course of human spaceflight, but it additionally drove the growth of scientific terrain and worldwide diplomatic relationships. The lasting impact of the Space Race lives on, acting as an echo of humankind’s intrinsic desire to discover and work together, overcoming the ideological differences that previously dominated the pursuit of the universe.

Works Cited

Davis, Maddie. “The Space Race.” Miller Center, 21 Mar. 2023, https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/educational-resources/space-race.

Dunbar, Brian. “Technology.” NASA, NASA, www.nasa.gov/specials/60counting/tech.html. Accessed February 3, 2024.

Hanes, Elizabeth. “From Sputnik to Spacewalking: 7 Soviet Space Firsts.” History.Com, A&E Television Networks, 2023, www.history.com/news/from-sputnik-to-spacewalking-7-soviet-space-firsts.

Muir-Harmony, Teasel. “The Space Race and American Foreign Relations.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History, February 27, 2017, pp. 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.274.

The Outcome of the American Revolution

The American Revolution had meant so much to numerous groups of individuals in America. The Revolution impacted America’s middle class, African Americans, loyalists, and merchants. This essay will discuss in detail the American Revolution’s outcome and how it impacted different groups of people in America (Michael). The revolutionary time was marked by intense alterations in political, social, and economic arrangements, and its effect differed based on one’s position in society.

To begin with, the Revolution for colonial elites and intellectuals in America came as an opportunity to structure a fresh leadership and challenge the traditional systems. People like Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were influenced by bright and visionary ideas that anticipated a republic rooted in codes and equality (Gish and Bibby). With the Declaration of Independence, they crystallized the ideas by broadcasting the essential rights of all individuals in the country ((Nora). These guys saw the Revolution as a great chance to establish a government responsible to everyone who insisted on pursuing happiness and the right to self-governance. On the contrary, the middle class and local elites saw revolutions as an avenue for economic progression and a chance to increase political involvement (Boston, 1704). Because the legislature during the colonial era was actively imposing taxes, making decisions on economic issues, and regulating businesses, the Revolution allowed the native leaders to solidify their impact and form new state governments. Revolution came with promises of political inclusivity; thus, the middle class aspired for more excellent representation and economic growth. The larger American population, like the farmers, tradespeople, and laborers, viewed the Revolution to result in challenging outcomes.

Revolution for the African Americans, both enslaved and free, came with a lot of anticipations and outcomes. The enslaved Americans perceived the conflict as an opportunity for them to demand freedom, supporting their expectations with the rhetoric of the Revolution (Quarles). The ambiguity between the revolutionary ideas of liberty and the truth of extensive slavery posed challenges to the enslaved. As a result, some faced racial discrimination and racism, some of which were exactly opposite of the expectations from the Revolution. However, African Americans saw a chance for improved rights and recognition with varying social-political landscapes. Some tribes, like the Oneida and Tuscarora, viewed the Revolution with support from the patriots and confidence in securing their autonomy and boundaries (Michael).

On the contrary, other groups like the Mohawk and Cherokee collaborated with the British as they perceived them as trustworthy friends against westward expansion. Therefore, the Revolution was a struggle for the Native Americans as it was hard to traverse and guard their views against the colonial expansion (Michael). Also, the Revolution resulted in women going back to dress farms and businesses as the male members involved in the conflict. Thus, the Revolution never immediately changed females’ legal and political positions.

American Revolution

Both free and enslaved Black Americans had an impact on and were affected by the Revolution. As early as Virginia’s Dunmore Proclamation of 1775, which guaranteed freedom to any enslaved person who would flee their enslavers and join the British cause, the British were the first to organize Black (or “Ethiopian”) regiments (Gallagher 778). Washington, an enslaver, first opposed letting Black soldiers enlist in the Continental Army but finally gave in. Peter Salem was set free by his owner in 1775 so he could join the militia. Along with about thirty other Black Americans, Salem bravely fought the British Regulars at Lexington and Bunker Hill (Thomas, 1776). Salem acquired the right to make his own decisions when his enlistment ended, in addition to his contribution to the cause. Salem was not the only enslaved person to take advantage of war’s chaos to flee and gain their freedom. According to historians, during the conflict, between 30,000 and 100,000 formerly enslaved people absconded from their masters. Together, men and women endured years of suffering and conflict. The victory gave new political, social, and economic opportunities for patriots (and those who stayed neutral) but also brought new uncertainties (Pontiac, 1763). Entire settlements were destroyed by the war, especially in the South. Across the country, thousands of women had lost their husbands.

The Continental Congress found it difficult to put together a retaliatory move while men in Boston fought and lost their lives. John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and other radical Massachusetts delegates urged Congress to assist the Massachusetts militia, besieging Boston without supplies (Samson, 1768). Many of the Middle Colonies’ representatives, particularly those from Philadelphia, New Jersey, and New York, adopted a more moderate stance and advocated for fresh attempts at rapprochement. Radicals like Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Jefferson were part of the Virginia delegation in the South. At the same time, moderates like John and Edward Rutledge were part of the South Carolina delegation. According to the moderates, supporting the Massachusetts militia would be tantamount to declaring war. Following the war, the American economy would need to be rebuilt, burdened by depreciating currencies and war debt. States had established governments through their constitutions, but now it was up to men to learn how to rule ((Clough 1759). The survivors had to take advantage of the chances presented by the Revolution to assist in defining and constructing the new nation-state, even though those opportunities had come at a high cost in terms of lives and wealth. The loyalists, according to the during the American Revolution, reacted with skepticism and apprehension because of the linkage to Britain. They were as reluctant to the revolutionary actions as they feared that the radical landscape may end when complete independence was realized. As a result, the differing allegiances stressed associations and started conflicts because of the hesitation, which brought divisions in families and families. As a result, they faced expulsion and oppression and bore the effect of revolutionary zeal. Loyalists faced social and economic repercussions as their businesses and properties were confiscated.

Conclusion

In summary, the American Revolution was a complex conflict that elicited differing reactions from many societal groups. The Revolution’s impact was wide-ranging and profound, ranging from academics who envisioned a republic based on Enlightenment ideas to the complicated experiences of African Americans, Native Americans, women, merchants, and loyalists. It offered chances for political and economic progress, reinterpreted government, and questioned established systems. The aftermath of the war was felt in the form of altered economic interests, reconfiguring alliances, and personal sacrifices.

References

‌Boston trader Sarah Knight on her travels in Connecticut, 1704

Extracts from Gibson Clough’s War Journal, 1759

Gallagher, Sean. “The Prison of Public Works: Enslaved People and State Formation at Virginia’s Chiswell Lead Mines, 1775–1786.” Journal of Southern History, vol. 86, no. 4, Southern Historical Association, Jan. 2020, pp. 777–804, https://doi.org/10.1353/soh.2020.0239. Accessed 31 Jan. 2024

Gish, Dustin, and Andrew Bibby. “Rival Visions: How Jefferson and His Contemporaries Defined the Early.” Google Books, 2021,

Nora. “4. Colonial Society | the AMERICAN YAWP.” Americanyawp.com, 22 May 2013, www.americanyawp.com/text/04-colonial-society/. Accessed 31 Jan. 2024.

Pontiac Calls for War, 1763

Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the American Revolution. UNC Press Books, 2012.

Samson Occom describes his conversion and ministry in 1768

Thomas Paine Calls for American Independence, 1776

Cesar Chavez

Introduction

Cesar Chavez was one of the leading activists for Chicano Civil Rights in the 1960s and 70s. Chavez was a Mexican American farmworker turned labor leader and activist who dedicated his entire life to improving conditions for field workers in America by peaceful means such as boycotts, strikes, and pilgrimages, among others. His efforts shed light on the plight of Mexican American migrant workers and inspired the Chicano movement to advocate for social and political reform. This research paper will provide background information about Cesar Chavez, founder 1. It will then take some of Chavez’s significant activism efforts, such as the Delano grape strike and boycott, among other labor campaigns. Lastly, the paper will analyze Chavez’s legacy and how his work blew into a broader movement, allowing Mexican Americans in politics to gain political, social, and cultural power during the 1960s-70.

History of Cesar Chavez and Founding the United Farm Workers (UFW)

Cesar Chavez was born in 1927 into an American culture within a family that had lost their farm during the Great Depression and became migrant workers on farms (United Farm Workers p.1). Having been laboring in the fields since he was a child, Chavez knew that exploitation and misery awaited migrant wage workers who worked all day without breaks for minimal pay. After a brief service in the navy during the Second World War (WWII), Chavez returned to California, where he married Helen Fabela in 1948 (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica p.2). As a Community Service Organization (CSO) community organizer, Chavez started rallying migrant workers’ support for voting rights, education reforms, and protection against discrimination.

In 1962, after he departed from CSO, he co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (UFWA)) toW champion farm workers’ rights. It did it by improving working conditions and pay standards, to mention a few. Chavez employed nonviolent activist methods used by Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. These methods included peaceful marches, consumer boycotts, pickets, and strikes coupled with starvations to generate public awareness and pressure agricultural companies. Then Dolores Huerta, an influential co-leader and organizer, joined him shortly after. One of the most notable victories was negotiating a farmworker union contract with Schenley Wine Company in 1966 after striking and marching within California’s confines contracted to that effect(United Farm Workers p.5). It focused more on national attention to the plight of migrant workers. The group reached fifty thousand members by 1978 and, after a significant grape strike, merged its power with the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee to become what is referred to today as the United Farm Workers (UFW) union led by Chavez (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica p.4).

The Delano Grape Strike and Boycott

In September 1965, Chavez led the NFWA that organized Mexican American grape pickers in Delano for a strike against poor working conditions and unjust wages. With the predominantly Latino strike coalition not recognized or negotiated with by the agricultural industry, Chavez organized a national boycott of California table grapes authorized by student activists and labor groups nationwide. They walked, went on hunger strikes, and picketed stores to force them out of their shelves of grapes. Millions stopped buying grapes five years later to bring the industry down and negotiate (United Farm Workers p.11). The strike in Delano thus turned into the longest strike conducted throughout the United States. It compelled local and national political leaders to start addressing the exploitation of migrant workers. It acted as one of the dominant civil rights issues along with black, feminist, and antiwar protests throughout the 1960s in America, according to the historian Griswold Del Castillo.

Despite the accomplishment of a landmark farm laborer union contract in 1970 that would improve wages and working conditions for thousands teaming with Mexican migrant farm workers, there was continuous worker unrest. It demonstrated just how poor agricultural corporations, along with lawmakers, were to give these predominantly Mexican American migrants their complete labor rights plus protection from exploitation. Nevertheless, Delano represented the increased political consciousness of organized farmworkers nationally.

Beyond Labor Rights Activism

Although organizing strikes on farmworker efforts was at the center of Chavez’s advocacy, he also actively championed and merged with other civil rights issues that sought to advance additional goals under the Chicano movement agenda. For instance, he worked with and promoted the Chicano student group MECHA’s (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicanx de Aztlán) initiatives. It was to create studies programs and widen outreach to college access. He also supported Hispanic political candidates like Senator Jose Angel Gutierrez of Texas. Chavez additionally created connections with black civil rights leaders to emphasize intersecting worker injustices across races and bring about togetherness. They introduced people like Martin Luther King Jr and Jesse Jackson to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). They publicly supported King’s 1968 Poor People‘s Campaign for Economic Justice. They inherited a UFW flag from his wife, Coretta Scott King, after his assassination here (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica p.7). Chavez also connected to activist and union organizer Dolores Huerta, who helped found the UFW alongside him and would deliver blazing speeches with a call for social change. Towards the end of his career, Chavez staged a life-threatening thirty-six-day hunger strike in order to renew and recommit himself and their members as well as the Latino community at large. He demanded that nonviolent activism embrace the intensified frustrations of workers concerning ongoing injustices within fields. It was not until Chavez asked President Clinton to protect union organizing and worker’s rights for the vulnerable immigrant workforce that he ended his fast. Although a problematic opposition campaign against unionization movements from the agriculture lobby efforts, it quickly symbolized Chavez’s ceaseless nonviolent advocacy to bring such a political change(United Farm Workers p.13).

Legacy of Chavez on the Chicano Movement

While organizing farmworker strikes and Latino community activism throughout California, Cesar Chavez drove the second half of this intellectual movement from the Second Phase of Civil Rights to the late 1980s (CSUSM p.7). His potential to unite the migrant farmworkers in a mass revolt demanding better field conditions and wage rates added energy to mobilizing Mexican American political activism. It was for the necessary socioeconomic needs of this marginalized group. The civil rights fought for in the Delano grape boycott, and the strike defined political efforts. It was a coalition of Latino Civil Rights groups, religious organizations, and the association’s labor federation to address exploitation and discrimination through nonviolent resistance. Although Chavez mainly focused on improving conditions for migrant workers, he managed to reorganize the movement. It opened the floodgates to more prominent arguments for empowering Hispanic people, such as calls by activist student groups like MECHA advocating changes in curriculum reform and better representation of political leaders (Mario T., and Ellen Pg.78). They could bring change from city halls through Congress. Even though ongoing injustices prevailed until his death in 1993 as migrant workers still had to work under harsh field conditions, today, Chavez gave Mexican Americans an iconic leader. He showed the effectiveness of community organization and nonviolent activism for realizing social change. His solidarity boycotts, picketing, and even fasting tactics became a model for many Hispanic leaders who made Cesar Chavez somewhat of an icon of the labor movement and West Coast Chicano civil rights. Although there is much work yet to be done today, the mass mobilization and awakening of Latino activism Chavez’s strikes brought about launched Mexican Americans. They claim their rights and higher political, social, and socioeconomic power across national boundaries.

Conclusion

Among the most legendary labor and civil rights leaders of the twentieth century, Cesar Chavez devoted his life to supporting America’s alienated migrant farmworkers, mostly Mexican-Americans. Using mass mobilization and strikes, such as the historic multi-year Delano grape boycott, along with community organizing and alliances with other leaders, Chavez brought exploitation of Hispanics. He brought them to national attention as a socioeconomic matter that demanded compensation. The unionization of agricultural workers proved very important as it signaled the rising power of Latinos as a political force and enabled future organizations to continue their work on behalf of that group.

Even though Chavez concentrated mainly on farmworkers’ struggles, his legacy united and inspired the movement of all people eager to obtain political, educational, social, and cultural rights for Hispanics throughout America. While migrant workers today still face discrimination and poor work conditions, Cesar Chavez became a civil rights icon due to his grassroots activism that led to powerful nonviolent resistance. His durable passion helped stimulate Mexican Americans throughout California and the nation to demand change and more political blows among influential voting blocks. Chavez provided one of the defining symbols and leaders for the civil rights era Chicano Movement to march behind for support.

Works Cited

CSUSM. “In Honor of Cesar E. Chavez | Latino Association of Faculty and Staff | CSUSM.” Www.csusm.edu, 2019, www.csusm.edu/lafs/chavez.html#:~:text=His%20union.

Mario T., García, and McCracken, Ellen. I am rewriting the Chicano Movement. 2021, www.researchgate.net/profile/Omar-Valerio-Jimenez/publication/349931128_LA_CARAVANA_DE_LA_RECONQUISTA_The_Brown_Berets_Contest_Memories_of

_Conquest/links/641cfe6566f8522c38cceaa7/LA-CARAVANA-DE-LA-RECONQUISTA-The-Brown-Berets-Contest-

Memories-of-Conquest.pdf.

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Cesar Chavez | Biography & Facts.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 Dec. 2023, www.britannica.com/biography/Cesar-Chavez.

United farm workers. “The Story of Cesar Chavez.” UFW, United Farm Workers, 2017, ufw.org/research/history/story-cesar-chavez/.

How Did the Mental Health of WWI Soldiers Affect Their Lives After the War?

Topic description

The First World War had a profound and long-lasting effect on soldiers lucky not to succumb to the raging war. These soldiers developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during and after the war, thereby significantly impacting their lives after the war was over. Millions of soldiers from various parts of the world participated in the conflict. These soldiers, particularly those who were at the frontline experiencing prolonged trench warfare and witnessing the gory casualties of war unfolding before them, became vulnerable to post-traumatic disorder. These victims of post-war mental health challenges included war veterans hailing from various backgrounds, cultures, and social classes. The return of these soldiers brought about several challenges to the societies that welcomed them back as they struggled to reinvent their lives to conform to the society they were welcomed into. In doing so, many of them faced challenges ranging from broken relationships with their family and community, lack of employment, and social stigma as they were viewed as responsible for the loss of lives and destruction of property when, in a real sense, they were following orders. This situation greatly pressured their families, communities, and the healthcare system. The question of how the mental health of these soldiers affected their lives can, therefore, be analyzed through an interdisciplinary lens of history to comprehend the historical context of the First World War, the issues of mental health among soldiers, and the cultural representations of the soldiers who survived the war. Therefore, through the lens of history, it is clear that the lives of the First World War soldiers were largely shaped by the mental health problems they sustained on the battlefield, thereby culminating in personal struggles and social challenges.

Critical analysis

Impact on institutions

The unprecedented mental health cases among the war veterans necessitated the creation of mental health facilities within the existing healthcare systems. According to Khan (2022), the interwar period led to the development of psychiatry in India since some soldiers were susceptible to mental health illness. India’s healthcare system had limited mental healthcare facilities until the mental health challenges of war veterans raised that necessity. The mental health challenges brought about a radical change in healthcare systems to accommodate the growing need for mental healthcare. In India, for instance, these challenges led to the creation of the Indian Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, a brainchild of the Indian Psychiatric Society in 1947, to handle the country’s mental health matters (Khan, 2022). The difficult challenges of living with mental health issues among the veteran soldiers effected several institutional changes, such as the creation of institutions with the sole aim of combatting mental health issues. Therefore, the creation of such institutions made it easier to help veteran soldiers handle their challenging situations as they received help from such institutions. Buechner (2020) asserts that some learning institutions have since included support programs to help veterans cope with various challenges, such as the Military Psychology program at Adler University. Such programs have lessened the pain felt by war veterans as they battle mental health issues after the war. The measures have also led to a gradual shift in societal understanding of mental health to a positive understanding, allowing people to help war veterans battling such challenges.

Social practices

The mental health challenges faced by the World War One veterans shaped societal social practices. According to (Khan, 2022), those who offered psychiatric services in India retained some biases, for instance, as soldiers from particular races were less vulnerable to mental health problems. This skepticism was maintained even during the Second World War. The experiences of World War I soldiers have shaped various practices revolving around mental health. Some people find it difficult to believe that soldiers can suffer from mental health cases, thereby making it difficult for such skeptical individuals to render the necessary help to the suffering soldiers. Rostek (2020) notes that it is concerning that resources for combatting mental health challenges among war veterans in Canada are lacking, resulting in a potential barrier to mental healthcare and increased psychological stress. In modern society, mental health cases are yet to be given the emphasis they need, leading to negligence in dealing with such cases. Such negligence results in the unavailability of necessary resources like healthcare facilities meant to handle mental health cases.

Elements of change

An important element of change is the change in perception the society holds towards mental health issues. According to Buechner (2020), student programs aimed at helping war veterans have created awareness of the implications of social justice and veterans’ experiences in line with their mental health to help veterans and their families transition to better lives. The struggles undergone by these soldiers culminated in social justice movements aimed at sensitizing people about mental health challenges faced by soldiers. Such sensitization has helped military veterans to settle down easily in their new lives through the support they receive through social justice programs. According to Vance & Howell (2020), policy changes within the US Department of Veteran Affairs no longer view post-traumatic stress disorder disability claimants with suspicion but have led to favorable compensation decisions. Increased awareness about mental health challenges has led to a positive perception of those affected by mental health, more so military veterans, ensuring they get their compensation, among other benefits.

Obstacles to Engagement

Societal stigma caused by a lack of understanding of mental health issues is a major obstacle to the engagement of war veterans. Ganz et al. (2021) state that military leaders equated mental illness in service to laziness, thereby increasing stigma and posing a barrier to mental health treatment. Some people do not understand the effects of mental illness, and this lack of understanding makes stigma thrive. With this skewed view of mental illness, soldiers often feel ashamed and find it difficult to communicate the challenges they are facing. Through counseling sessions, mental health professionals can help eradicate stigma among soldiers (Ganz et al., 2021). Such sessions can eliminate stigma since treatment is administered like other basic military training sessions.

Assumptions

Assumptions are crucial in impacting mental health topics since they lead to a lack of emphasis on mental health issues, potentially worsening the situation. According to Khan (2022), during the First World War, British officers assumed that their Indian subordinates harmed themselves deliberately so they could be relieved from their duties or given compensation. Such assumptions can impede the access and delivery of healthcare services to soldiers undergoing genuine mental health issues. Assuming that an individual is not affected by mental health makes such an affected individual not open up on the challenges he is undergoing, worsening the situation and making other people more susceptible to mental health issues.

Biases

Biases also impact mental health topics among military veterans. According to Khan (2022), colonial biases were internalized in Indian psychiatry because the country was unable to leave biased practices. The impact of colonializing included entrenchment of bias, which still exists in some societies and spanning across various sectors such as health sectors. There is a substantial bias concerning gender, class, and mental illness, which is pivotal in understanding the experiences of war veterans. It is, therefore, cardinal to understand the nature of trauma and the coping mechanisms of individuals facing mental illness to help eliminate such potential biases.

Benefits

Addressing mental health issues among war veterans empowers them by eliminating self-stigma and enabling them to build their lives afresh. Self-stigma erodes self-respect and disempowers an individual by making them feel worthless and incapable of achieving personal goals, making it difficult to find or keep employment (Brouwers, 2020). Mental illness negatively affects an individual by making them devalue themselves, thereby finding it difficult to cope with life after military service. However, addressing mental illness can lead to work adjustment and social support, thereby helping to ensure job security (Brouwers, 2020). It is imperative to handle cases of mental health among soldiers to enable them to reconstruct their post-war lives by finding ways to make a living, among others. Solving mental illness empowers veterans to stand up for themselves and not burden their families and communities.

Challenges

Cultural conditioning against clinical psychology can impede the efforts to address mental health challenges among soldiers. According to Buechner (2020), veterans can be culturally conditioned to avoid clinical psychology, which can lead to re-traumatization. Failure to accept the help of professional social health workers in dealing with mental health illness can cause an individual to experience trauma once more. Furthermore, cultures that discourage individuals from seeking the help of healthcare professionals in fighting mental illnesses worsen the situation. This situation, therefore, poses a major challenge to addressing mental health issues.

Strategy for Personal and Professional Goals

The issues of veteran mental health can best be used by employing a critical lens as a strategy of analysis. Using a critical lens in analyzing such mental health cases can inform a personal commitment to social justice and advocacy for vulnerable populations. It can make individuals more aware and understanding of the plight of those suffering from mental illnesses, thereby paving the way for amicable solutions to such mental health challenges. In future careers of professional social healthcare workers, the ability to comprehend mental health issues can translate into providing more informed and holistic support to clients or patients struggling with trauma.

Everyday Life Implications

As a professional social healthcare worker, an individual can recognize the invisible scars of war in veterans. According to Vance and Howell (2020), people fighting in wars sustain both physical and psychological wounds, leaving scars in their minds. War veterans have mental health issues that remain as scars in their minds sustained from the war. A social worker may encounter such cases daily in their lines of duty, thereby calling upon to offer support and understanding. In so doing, a professional social healthcare worker needs to examine their own biases and assumptions to allow them to engage with mental health victims in a non-judgmental and empathetic way.

Reflection

Individual Perception

My understanding of the immense and lasting effects of mental illness has been broadened by critically analyzing how mental health affected World War I soldiers in their post-war lives. According to Khan (2022), almost 6000 injured soldiers were treated and given artificial legs in 1916 in India. The First World War left many soldiers limbless, thereby having a long-lasting effect on them and their mental health even after the war. Such experiences undergone by war veterans have instilled in me a sense of responsibility toward ensuring access to mental health resources and dismantling the societal stigma surrounding mental illness. The experiences have made me realize the extent of damage war does to soldiers, thereby making it necessary for such victims to be accorded the required help.

My Altered Perceptions of the World

The challenges faced by veterans of the First World War make me aware of the struggles war veterans have been undergoing throughout world conflicts. Rostek (2020) notes that many World War One soldiers returned from the war having shell shock, currently known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma is one of the challenges that have been facing war veterans, and this has changed my perception that military combat is sometimes necessary in maintaining a peaceful world order. Ganz et al. (2021) state that about 8.4% of the military force the US has sent for war in Iraq and Afghanistan were diagnosed with mental health issues in 2019, resulting in an increased level of suicide. These challenges underscore the need to advocate for the rights and well-being of soldiers rather than see them as mere agents of destruction. Besides, this analysis has also altered my world perception by highlighting the need to change the societal attitude towards mental illness.

Examination of bias

Recognizing my biases is important in altering my perception of the world. According to Khan (2022), the British officers in the First World were biased toward the Indian soldiers by refusing to acknowledge their mental illness. This level of bias resulted in many soldiers being affected by mental health challenges. By reflecting on my bias, I am made more aware of the perceived notions about mental health. Therefore, recognizing and addressing such biases is pivotal in building a society that is more inclusive, accommodating, welcoming, and supportive of people struggling with mental health challenges.

Influence on the Field of Study

This critical analysis reinforces the connection between cultural narratives, historical context, and individual experiences of veteran soldiers in shaping the understanding of mental health. Furthermore, it is crucial to understand the societal impacts of mental health. The analysis also informs strategies for creating an inclusive and supportive environment besides advocating for mental health policies. Therefore, critical analysis is essential in informing my future profession and practice in social work.

Understanding the Next Big Topic

Studying wellness underscores the link between physical and mental health. Due to this interconnectedness, it can set the trajectory for the next big topic by focusing on holistic well-being approaches that may become a focus in various disciplines. Furthermore, studying well-being can open doors to more research on how the challenges of mental illnesses can be mitigated.

The difference when an alternative lens is used

Other lenses can be used to analyze the mental health challenges faced by World War I veterans. One such lens is the natural science lens. Using this lens could lead to an examination of the neurological and biological underpinnings of post-traumatic stress disorder. This approach could have delved much into the physical and neurological effects of trauma on victims of mental health, besides the biological causes of such trauma. Likewise, the analysis could have been different had the lens of social science been used. This lens could have focused on the pivotal roles of social support networks, family, and community and their resources in supporting veterans’ recovery.

Conclusion

Understanding the challenges veterans face can help bring about change. For instance, it can help in changing the perspective of people to view mental health as a serious challenge that needs to be addressed. Societal stigma is, however, a major stumbling block to the realization of a society free from mental health problems. Stigmatization makes it difficult for soldiers and other victims to seek medication, thereby worsening their situation. The assumption that mental health is not a threat is also catastrophic since it impedes any treatment measure that can be taken to mitigate mental health. Besides, people also have various biases regarding mental health; however, treating mental health is beneficial as it empowers individuals to find a new life despite the challenge of cultural conditioning against clinical psychology that impedes such benefits. Learning about mental health challenges that the war veterans faced, therefore, can change an individual’s perspective on mental health and the world and also bridge a gap between various cultures, beliefs, and personal perspectives about mental health. It underscores the need to emphasize the need to build a society that is supportive of people facing mental health changes besides finding amicable solutions to mental health illness.

References

Buechner, B. D. (2020). Untold stories of moral injury: What we are learning—and not learning—from military veterans in transition. Frontiers in Communication, 5, 599301. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2020.599301

Brouwers, E. P. (2020). Social stigma is an underestimated contributing factor to unemployment in people with mental illness or mental health issues: position paper and future directions. BMC psychology, 8, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00399-0

Ganz, A., Yamaguchi, C., Koritzky, B. P. G., & Berger, S. E. (2021). Military Culture and Its Impact on Mental Health and Stigma. Journal of Community Engagement & Scholarship, 13(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.54656/ZZHP1245

Khan, S. (2022). Medicine and the critique of war: military psychiatry, social classification and the malingering patient in colonial India. Medical History, 66(1), 47-63. https://doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2021.38

Rostek, M. (2020). Occupational therapy’s role in military family mental health. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 6(S3), 58-62. https://doi.org/10.3138/jmvfh-2019-0038

Vance, M. C., & Howell, J. D. (2020, September). Shell shock and PTSD: a tale of two diagnoses. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 95, No. 9, pp. 1827-1830). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.06.002

Civil War Impact on Texas

1861-1865 The American Civil War came to Texas and profoundly affected the state. Though lying several thousand miles away from the main war theater, Texas had deep involvement in the war, and its residents underwent severe effects of both direct and indirect nature caused by the combat. Through economic changes and social revolutions, the mark of the Civil War was indelibly carried on the Lone Star State.

According to Hall (2019), Texas was a slave state, and slavery had an institutionalized role in its economy and social life. 1861, Texas joined the Southern states as they seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy. Seceding from the United States was mainly to protect slavery, and with an agrarian economy like Texas, they depended a great deal on the labor-intensive practice of slavery. The war served as a crucible for slavery, and the following abolition of slavery would change the social and economic backdrop of the state.

The effects of the Civil War on Texas’ economy were complicated. First, the demand for the state’s agricultural products made it benefit. Cotton prices soared when Southern ports were blocked by the Union Navy, causing a high demand for cotton. Texas benefited for a short time because of its huge cotton farms, as cotton production turned into a profitable business (Rawlings, 2021). However, this economic boon proved to be transitory due to the strengthening of the Union blockade, which cut off Texas’ potential for export.

Additionally, the war destabilized trade routes and created a shortage of goods for both urban and rural populations. Inflation escalated, and foodstuffs and other essential commodities became hard to get. Many Texans suffered economically as the war progressed, particularly those not engaged in cotton production. These challenges especially affected small farmers, merchants, and laborers, resulting in further economic divide among the residents of the state (Calvert et al. 2020). The military impact of the Civil War on Texas was not as dramatic as in some other Southern states. It is far from the scenes of most of the major battles. Thousand of Texans joined the Confederate Army, and the state supported the war effort greatly. Texas regiments participated in decisive fights like Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg, among others.

The war heralded a different social order in Texas as well. Since there was no large slave population as in other Southern states, the overall effect of emancipation was not very noticeable immediately. But the end of this war and the abolishment of slavery changed everything radically. The following Reconstruction era sought to redefine the political and social framework of the South. This period was characterized by the formation of new political alliances in Texas, the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau to help the freed slaves, and the enactment of laws that aimed at integrating African Americans into society (Moneyhon,2019).

Moneyhon (2019) argues that the memory of the Civil War is still fresh in Texas even years after it ended. The state went through a period of reconstruction which was characterized by political unrest and social disturbances. Confederate veterans had to overcome the challenge of rebuilding their lives and communities, whereas newly freed slaves tried to claim their rights and establish their rightful place in a society that was experiencing great changes.

In conclusion, the effect of the Civil War on Texas was immense and varied. The main direction of the state after the conflict was influenced by its economic, military, and social consequences. From the first economic boom based on cotton-making to the Union’s blockade, and from military actions to social changes happening with emancipation and Reconstruction, the Texas Civil War marked history forever.

References

Calvert, R. A., De León, A., & Cantrell, G. (2020). The history of Texas. John Wiley & Sons.

Hall, A. (2019). Slaves of the state: infrastructure and governance through slavery in the Antebellum South. Journal of American History, 106(1), 19-46.

Moneyhon, C. H. (2019). Edmund J. Davis of Texas: Civil War General, Republican Leader, Reconstruction Governor (Vol. 2). Texas A&M University Press.

Rawlings, T. (2021). The Impacts of the United States-China Trade War on the Texas Cotton Sector.

The American Revolution

A Basic Description of The American Revolution

The American Revolution (1775-1783) was a pivotal historical event when thirteen American colonies sought Independence from British rule. The harsh issues like the high taxation without representation and the attempts by the British to excerpt their control were some of the problems that exacerbated the American revolution (Boston Tea Party Ships & Museum). The battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775, in conjunction with the conflict, translated to the complete manifestation of the revolution. Prominent figures like George Washington, being members of the Continental Congress, organized the Continental Army. The Declaration of Independence, which was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, was an element that solidified the colony’s resolve to break free and try to find their freedom. Some of the critical battles that played a role in attaining Independence in the United States were Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781). The Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the first element that recognized the United States as an independent nation, with the principles of governance still being used today (Boston Tea Party Ships & Museum). The revolution was an object of inspiration, which inspired several democratic ideals, creating a foundation upon which the United States of America was formed.

Three Individuals Related to The American Revolution

George Washington

Born in 1732, he was a pivotal figure in the American Revolution and the first President of the United States. George’s roles were significant and played a role in the revolution and the achievement of the present-day United States of America. His military prowess was seen especially during the French and Indian War, allowing him to gain experience and leadership (Wallace). His direct involvement in the American Revolution started in 1775 after he was appointed the commander of the Continental Army in the Continental Congress. His leadership skills were indispensable in leading the nation even though he faced several challenges, such as an untrained army, limited resources resilience, and consecutive struggle, which proved effective (Wallace). Even though the early phases of the war faced several challenges, his ability to properly inspire his troops allowed him to make the appropriate decisions, incredibly daring to cross the Delaware River before the Battle of Trenton in 1776.

One of Washington’s most notable achievements occurred in 1781 during the Siege of Yorktown. His collaboration with the French forces under the leadership of General Rochambeau, Washington, orchestrated a perfect military camp and vital energy that made the British surrender (Wallace). The British surrender was a critical turning point of the war as the victory ended several pre-existing hostilities and created a way upon which the Treaty of Paris existed in 1783, thus securing the Independence of the American people. His significance extended further than his leadership accomplishments as he played a vital role in shaping the constitution of the United States and had more emphasis on the creation of a balanced and strong central government (Wallace). His reduced lust for power, which saw him leave power after the two terms of presidency, presented him as a peaceful president who advocated for a peaceful transition, emphasizing the democratic republic.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson, born in 1743, was a polymath, Founding Father, and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence with several roles in law, architecture, and philosophy. His articulate expression of revolutionary ideas was a vital element that marked his involvement in the revolution (Wood). The political journey started in Virginia House of Burgesses after he became known for his prowess, eloquence, and commitment to politics and colonial rights matters. He later joined the Continental Congress in 1775, where he was charged with drafting the independence document. Being the third president, after serving from 1801-1809, his impact was felt and extended beyond the revolution (Wood). The presidency in which he was in service was the United States expansion, and he even saw the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, which translated to a double in the nation’s territory, creating a groundwork upon which the western acquisition expanded, fostering economic growth.

Jefferson’s commitment to education, mainly evidenced by the founding of the University of Virginia in 1819, created more emphasis on the value of education and the national significance of having an educated citizenry in attaining national success through democratic participation and other federal activities (Wood). Jefferson’s lasting effect in the United States political field was evident in his co-founding of the Democratic-Republican Party, his advocacy on the limited federal governments, and his agrarian interests. His legacy is, however, a complex one because he even enslaved people and had diverging opinions on racial equality. The discrepancy between his strive for advocacy and his actions and inflictions against some of his perceptions is still subject to much scrutiny (Wood). Even though he had his better share of shortcomings, Jefferson went down as one of the vital participants in the American Revolution.

Benjamin Franklin

He was born in 1706 and was a polymath, statesman, scientist, and one of the United States’ Founding Fathers. He first gained fame due to his prominence as a printer, author, and scientist after his experiments on electricity. His involvement in the American Revolution is multifaceted since he became a colonial agent in the early 1770s, where he was charged with advocating the interest of the colonial interest and preventing the rapture between the British and its American colonies (Taylor). His focus, however, shifted as there were increased tensions, shifting his focus to diplomacy and securing international support for the American cause.

By the year 1776, he had a role in the attainment of Independence in the United States as his diplomatic skills were used in France where he served as the minister of the United States to France from the periods of 1776 to 1785 and his charm reputation and took him to the French court where he negotiated the Treaty of Alliance in 1778, formalizing French support for the American cause. His diplomatic efforts on the Treaty of Paris in 1783 brought the Revolutionary War to a realization and recognition of the American Independence. His negotiations made achieving favorable terms for the United States easier, making a diplomatic triumph translating to a national emergence (Taylor). His significance lies not only in his diplomatic achievements but also in his role in bridging the enlightenment on the founding principles of the United States.

Events Related to The American Revolution

The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)

The Battles were pivotal events in the lead-up to the American Revolution, serving as the ignition point for armed conflict between the American colonists and British forces. The war manifested due to the increasing tensions between the American colonies and the British government. Examples of the issues that exacerbated the conflict and this rivalry were increased taxation and lack of representation, brutal laws and policies that were not tolerable, and the general negative perception of the British. The immediate reason for the battle was the British attempt to confiscate the military supplies within Concord (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). Before the clash, Paul Revere and other riders regarded the British approach as making it easier for the militia to prepare for any confrontation adequately.

The war was the primary military engagement within the American Revolution, and the outcome saw a victory for the American colonists. Even though the war was a small one, the British were forced out of Boston by the colonist militia, presenting injuries to some individuals along the way. The move translated to a sentimental shift, making them resist the British more and pursue their route to attaining their Independence. The war also had severe and profound effects, translating to conflict and more avenues for confrontation. This demonstrated the colonists’ ability to defend themselves and protect their freedom, leading to the Declaration of Independence 1776 (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). These events fundamentally propelled American colonialists towards total rebellion and complete freedom.

The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)

The event, adopted on July 4, 1776, directly responded to the deep-seated grievances and mounting tensions between the American colonies and British rule. The American people were affected by several elements of injustice presented by the British, including injustice, heavy taxation, and the exemption of fundamental liberal rights. The issues were so severe that they compelled the Continental Congress to declare formal Independence (National Archives). The significance of the declaration was its articulation of the Independence from the mistreatment by the British. The document ensures that all the harsh injustice and denied rights were returned to the American people. The outcome was the establishment of a new United States of America. The document was not just a unifying factor; it also created a ground for the American Revolutionary War (National Archives). Through the declaration, the Americans devoted themselves to protecting their liberty and building a democratic republic, one that each was repented, not overtaxing like the colonial masters.

Conclusion And the Importance of The Theme

The American Revolution is a seminal chapter in American history, embodying the spirit of Independence, democratic ideals, and the pursuit of liberty. Some exacerbation factors were battles like the Battles of Lexington and Concord and the Declaration of Independence that made the colonial masters end the British oppression in the United States. Significant national figures like George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin were vital to achieving the American Revolution. The trait elements that led to their progression in the pursuit were their diplomacy, ideological contributions, and leadership. Integration and understanding of the American Revolution is vital in understanding the mechanism and events that led to the present-day United States of America. The pursuit of Independence and the development of the United States are perfect examples of what resilience and aspiration can breed.

Work Cited

Boston Tea Party Ships & Museum. “American Revolution History | Guide to the Revolutionary War.” Boston Tea Party Ships, September 24, 2019, www.bostonteapartyship.com/american-revolution#:~:text=The%20American%20Revolution%20was%20an.

National Archives. “Declaration of Independence (1776).” National Archives, April 8, 2021, www.archives.gov/milestone-documents/declaration-of-independence.

Taylor, Philip M. “The American Revolution.” Www.manchesterhive.com, Manchester University Press, 19 July 2013, pp. 133–44, www.manchesterhive.com/display/9781847790927/9781847790927.00026.xml. Accessed December 11, 2023.

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Battles of Lexington and Concord | United States History.” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 28, 2019, www.britannica.com/event/Battles-of-Lexington-and-Concord. Accessed February 11, 2019.

Wallace, Willard M. “American Revolution | Causes, Battles, Aftermath, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica, August 27, 2020, www.britannica.com/event/American-Revolution.

Wood, Gordon S. “Classical Republicanism and the American Revolution.” Chicago-Kent Law Review, vol. 66, 1990, p. 13, heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/chknt66&div=8&id=&page=. Accessed December 11, 2023.

Influential Factors of Southern Secession and Civil War

The secession of Southern American states, which led to the American Civil War, was not a sudden event but rather an extension of decades of tensions and conflicts. Partisan, communal, and Economic discrepancies amid southern and Northern portions served as the foundation of the secession movement, which was a result of complicated circumstances that ended in a catastrophic war. The main reasons for secession from the South lay in financial injustices, communal and ethnic facets, slavery, as well as partisan-related factors acting as a cause that led to the cruelest period in the American account.

Economic imbalance between the North and the South was a driving factor in the Southern secession. In the time preceding the Civil War, the Southern economy was largely agricultural, based on rural farming executed by the slave workforce. The case went opposite to the North’s fast globalization and urbanism that fueled its effective financial system. The Southern civilians who capitalized on the agricultural structure suffered the most exclusion and, therefore, began to resent the North’s progress and rural advancement (Er 34). The industrial economic advancement of Northern America surpassed and strengthened the conventional mode of the Southern part.

Besides, the protective tariffs matter added to the succession problems. Southern states contended that the safety customs intended to defend the northern corporations significantly threatened and damaged the agricultural monetary of the South as the regions fought for land. Therefore, the Southern elites considered the development as partiality to Northern factories for the detriment of Southern planters (Er 36). Persistent economic and land differences fed resistance and widened the gap between the South and the North, which built up much hatred that ultimately resulted in the beginning of the Civil War and Southern states’ secession.

At the heart of the secession revolution lay the slavery aspect, which dominated the Southern economy and meant the prominence of slavery everywhere in the society of the South. Unfortunately, Southern states felt that the increasing abolitionist views in the North prompted a precise danger to their distinctive system and mode of living. Beyond that, the issue of the states’ privileges became a prime concern (Er 35). The southern states advocated for the freedom to decide on the bondage validity within their limits, recommending the doctrines of voiding against what they termed federal intrusion.

The political separations that marked pre-Civil War America were essentially due to the thorny slavery concern. The selection of a prominent and strong foe of the extension of slavery, Abraham Lincoln, led to aggravating tensions. The southern states felt that Abraham’s win was an explicit risk to their slavery workforce system and way of living (Er 34). The scenario meant that he was of the opinion that their constitutional rights had been infringed. Eventually, the incident produced anxiety about federal meddling in their errands, and consequently, South Carolina became the first among the Southern republics to separate from the Union.

The breakup of the Southern states and the creation of the Confederate States of the US marked a point of no return from the Federal Republic inherited from the Founding Fathers. Southern managers rationalized their activities as needed to safeguard their independence and perpetuate the system of slavery. The choice of Abraham precipitated secession, revealing the incompatibility of the North and the South with regard to the slavery question (Gaughan et al. 115). Hence, the political cleavage laid the groundwork for the Civil War.

Community and cultural aspects were the biggest contributors to the Southern secession movement. In contrast to the developing urban scene of the North, the pyramidal and agricultural revolution of the South remained the polar opposite (Era 35). The Southern civilians maintained the opinion of nobility and authority as idealized in their minds, standing contrary to the intrusion of the Northern development market economy (Ryan 16). Such an established perception of the racial dominancy of the South and its mode of living triggered the feeling of rebellion against the federal government among the Southern republics.

On the other hand, the cultural separation intensified when the Northern liberator saw slavery as an immorality. The Northern moral position contrasted with the established economic values and communal principles of the South based on the societal and cultural perceptions of the slave workforce, aggravating animosities and activating the country around dogmatic divides (Ryan 16). The South’s devotion to protecting slavery as the bedrock of its economic and communal system precisely activated the North’s increasingly abolitionist mood, deepening the ethnic and social divide that would eventually precipitate civil war advent and Southern secession, respectively.

The section of the United States comprising the former Southern States that resulted in the American Civil War was a blend of complex ethnic, fiscal, and communal pressures that have grown over the years. The combination of slaveholding, issues relating to state sovereignty, and socioeconomic differences excited secessionist indignation and thus gave life to the movement. Attempts negotiation notwithstanding, the incompatible uncertainties between North and South culminated in a bloody war that would alter the US account forever. The effects of the Civil War and its aftermath linger until today, with scars of an unhealed past haunting our present.

Bibliography

Er, Eunice. “The Civil War Resulted in a Culmination of Economic Conflicts Between the North and South.” HiPo: The Langara Student Journal of History and Political Science 4 (2021): 34-40. https://lc.arcabc.ca/islandora/object/lc%3A4764/datastream/PDF/view

Gaughan, Anthony J. “The Dynamics of Democratic Breakdown: A Case Study of the American Civil War.” British Journal of American Legal Studies 11, no. 1 2022: 113–151. https://doi.org/10.2478/bjals-2022-0002

Ryan, Erin. “Secession and Federalism in the United States: Tools for Managing Regional Conflict in a Pluralist Society.” Claims for Secession and Federalism: A Comparative Study with a Special Focus on Spain 2019: 1–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59707-2_2

Attack on Pearl Harbor

The 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor represents one of the most pivotal events in modern American history. This unprovoked assault by the Japanese Imperial Navy on the key US Pacific naval base sparked America’s immediate entry into World War II, unleashing patriotic fury while simultaneously exposing military unreadiness. The bombing shattered assumptions of invincibility and isolation from foreign wars held by much of the American public at the time (O’Neil, 22). Through firsthand interviews and academic analysis, this paper will examine the context, motivations, significant figures, and short and long-term impacts surrounding Pearl Harbor to comprehend its enduring significance.

Numerous economic and geopolitical currents precipitated Japan’s ultimately catastrophic decision to launch a surprise offensive against the United States in 1941. Within the prior decades, an aggressively expansionist Imperial Japan sought control over large swaths of resource-rich Asia to feed its industrialization and empire-building, bringing it into conflict with Western powers and US allies controlling the Pacific, especially China (Noda, 62). After Japan continued its brutal invasion of China despite American protests and an embargo on key exports like oil and steel, hostility intensified. However, the US fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor presented the most significant deterrent to Japan’s Pacific ambitions. Hence, destroying the naval base could cripple American resistance by limiting both the immediate military response and morale needed to motivate involvement in another distant war. Academics also highlight how racial ideologies portraying Japanese citizens as superior fueled these aggressive calculations, positing that only demonstrative defeat could break this hubris. On the other hand, American leadership disastrously underestimated readiness for a Pacific attack, ignoring warning signs of imminent hostilities until the last moment (O’Neil, 23). The painful irony was that Pearl Harbor instantly obliterated ungrounded notions of two vast oceans, keeping the homeland beyond conflict’s reach.

The Pearl Harbor attack on the morning of December 7, 1941, stunned the nation with its scale and devastation. Waves of fighters, bombers, and torpedo planes launched from aircraft carriers struck suddenly and without warning on a sleepy Sunday, evading radar detection en route. American servicemembers recount the initial bombing feeling utterly surreal before frightful reality sank in amid flaming chaos. When the smoke cleared, some twenty naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, were destroyed or badly damaged; over three hundred aircraft were obliterated, casualties neared twenty-five hundred dead, and over a thousand more wounded. Reaction overwhelmingly fused horror at underhanded methods with outrage and urgency to respond. Survivor accounts expose how Pearl Harbor immediately shattered innocence about being shielded from other nations’ battles. President Roosevelt captured the angered, defiant mood, stating with trademark resolve: ” December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy” (Bailey & David, 2). His iconic declaration of war speech channeled national shock into coordinated wrath and awakening necessary for total mobilization.

In the immediate years following the war, the attack on Pearl Harbor took on mainly symbolic meaning in the national consciousness, both as encapsulating the traumatic loss of innocence and vulnerability that defined the shock of December 7 for those who endured its horrors firsthand, but equally symbolizing the galvanization of extraordinary resolve and unity of purpose that ultimately powered America’s path to victory over tyranny abroad (Bailey & David, 2). For the survivors of Pearl Harbor and families of those lost, the indelible trauma, grief, and pain of attachment to those grueling memories of the surprise onslaught and lives horrifically lost in smoke and flames persisted for decades and lifetimes afterward. However, strikingly, in numerous accounts, those searing recollections seem equally brimmed with a sense of profound moral clarity and conviction at the individual level around the essential justness and necessity of the broader cause they were called to fight following that day of infamy. Alongside the immense grief that forever bound them to fallen comrades, an engrained sense emerged that the national community became bonded tighter than ever through shared outrage and willingness to sacrifice after the initial shock subsided.

That impulse towards enshrining the loss and courage summoned by Pearl Harbor intensified in the immediate postwar years as the nation sought to process the meaning of the war’s victory and its costs. A unified patriotic narrative prominently elevated tales and artistic depictions spotlighting bravery, heroism, and supreme sacrifice, bestowing an elevated mythic aura of American resilience and championship of freedom (Drabkin et al. 390). However, as the passage of years gradually dimmed lived generational connections to World War II’s searing crucible, memory, and understanding of the Pearl Harbor attack subtly shifted and faded in the national consciousness for subsequent generations. Where it had once overloaded senses as the ultimate violation of homeland sanctuary, the dramatic events increasingly became confined to textbook history summarizations and stereotypical imagery, still arresting but more distantly compartmentalized as the opening battle scene from a familiar but relatively detached foreign war epic from the 1940s. The resulting contemporary public ambivalence reflects the failure to fully grasp either the profound emotional power and punch that Pearl Harbor initially delivered across an isolationist nation slumbering in ignorance of gathering threats.

In selecting the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack as a historically focal entry point, the genuinely pivotal nature of its significance stands out as undeniably compelling. The harsh shattering of assumptions within a nation that had long clung to notions of being a virtually invulnerable stronghold, somehow shielded from the turbulence and threats gathering throughout other regions of the world in those years, captures a watershed shift (Drabkin et al. 392). Pearl Harbor represented the moment when America could no longer pay any heed to the escalating global conflicts, threats of authoritarian aggression, and erosion of collective security rapidly unfolding while still desperately grasping to neutrality and geographical barriers as assurances of peace at home. Seen in retrospect, the catastrophic scale of the Pearl Harbor intelligence and readiness failure reflects fatal underestimations at multiple levels about the actual mindsets, motivations, and perceived threats guiding Japanese Imperial leadership in their calculus toward eventual confrontation. However, American leadership and much of the wider public severely misjudged their insulation from the tinderbox igniting abroad and the fragility of their long-prevailing conviction that the nation could cling to fortress isolationism despite gathering storms overseas. When the shocking destruction struck seemingly out of a clear blue sky that December morning, those last vestiges of innocence were extinguished immediately, painfully in the smoke and flames. Thus, Pearl Harbor represented the ultimate inflection point, signifying when America abruptly came of age on the global scene, shedding the final traces of insulated illusion thinking in the harshest possible terms. The tragedy was, in essence, the delivery mechanism both for profound pain and necessary awakening.

In the enormous landscape, Pearl Harbor took on mythic overtones as the catalyst event that set loose the eventual full might of America’s industrial juggernaut and the dedication of its activated citizenry to help fight authoritarianism and oppression worldwide. It marked a decisive turn in history’s march toward expanding human freedom and dignity (Noda, 66). However, the legacy remains complicated given that this enormous sacrifice and victory arose from an unanticipated, vastly asymmetric, calculated attack on soil considered sacrosanct. The enduring struggle to ultimately overcome the orchestrators of such infamy through years of grueling campaigning highlights how that awakening day marked only the sudden beginning rather than any swiftly completed mission. Reckoning with how calculated violence spurred but could not deter democracy’s marathon stand captures Pearl Harbor’s nuanced and complicated legacy.

Works Cited

Bailey, Beth, and David Farber, eds. Beyond Pearl Harbor: A Pacific History. University Press of Kansas, 2019.

Drabkin, Ron, K. Kusunoki, and B. W. Hart. “Agents, attachés, and intelligence failures: the Imperial Japanese Navy’s efforts to establish espionage networks in the United States before Pearl Harbor.” Intelligence and National Security 38.3 (2023): 390-406.

Noda, Sakiko. “Pearl Harbour and the Unification of Japan: a New Perspective on the Attack of Pearl Harbour through a Japanese Pan-Asianist Lens.” the ascendant historian 2 (2022): 61–67.

O’Neil, William D. “Pearl Harbor in Context.” Open Military Studies 2.1 (2022): 22–38.

The Cold War: An In-Depth Exploration of Its Multifaceted Impact

The Cold War, spanning 1947 to 1991, was an intense global conflict between the USA and the Soviet Union. It all started after World War I ended and during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Old empires were in tatters with considerable shifts in the world’s politics. The essay discusses the nature of the Cold War, including cultural, economic, religious, political, and socio-historical layers behind the complex details that made the twentieth century unique and unforgettable worldwide.

Economics

An economic landscape was shaped during the Cold War as the two competing economies engaged in a nuclear arms race, creating constant tension that defined international diplomacy. Essential factors for recovery and geopolitics included initiatives such as the Marshall and Molotov Plan. The technology was greatly influenced by the competition of who would rule in space as a result of both scientific and political-economic achievements(Clinton). The Clinton administration was instrumental in shifting emphasis from free trade to deregulated finances during the post-Cold War period by promoting NAFTA. The economic element of the Cold War went beyond the military aspect and touched upon the reconstruction of the international financial system symbolized by the Marshall Plan. The “War on Terror” by George W. Bush highlighted linkages between economic and political aspects. The economic competition evolved beyond purely scientific hurdles and became a strategic victory in the technology race (“Statement of Chelsea Manning”). The deregulation of Bill Clinton on free trade and financial deregulation (1993-2000) represented a new approach by the Clinton administration, thereby defining the global monetary regimes. Economic dynamics that characterized the Cold War period have impacted international relations.

Culture

The links between Cold War and post-Cold War culture, 1947–1991, emerge as the most formative global influences for contemporary art and visual culture. However, different cultural forms emerged as Western capitalism asserted individualistic expression through abstract expressionism and Eastern communism adopted a collective socialist realism. The culture of the United States after the Cold War is marked in U.S. cultural expression, as we see it when we examine George W. Bush’s “war on terror” address. Despite the changes evident since the Cold War era, the impact of such things as propaganda in shaping perception can be seen in the reflections of the 9/11 Commission report, which indicates how much the world has changed. A case in point is economic policy, such as Bill Clinton’s advocacy for free trade and financial deregulation, which are part of the shifting global environment. On the other hand, closer scrutiny of the events surrounding Chelsea Manning’s pardon sheds light on the influence of state activities on individuals in terms of civil affairs in the broader context of the aftermath of Cold War legacies(“Statement of Chelsea manning”). Such an enduring legacy is embodied in the present-day socio-cultural cloth, which incorporates ideas, propaganda, and economic changes that form an elaborate identity.

Political

The post-Cold War age emerged as a complex geopolitical environment where old, changed, or abandoned strategies of the Cold War were used simultaneously. Bush’s “post-9/11” highlights how much post-Cold War U.S. foreign policy has been shaped by the Cold War ideology. Simultaneously, Bill Clinton’s free trade and financial deregulatory policies contradict conventional Cold War economics, implying a move towards globalization(Bush). In response to the post-Cold War threats, there is evidence that America carries a Cold War legacy, meaning that the old strategies have continued to be effective. Tacitly, one notes that the economic policies of the Clinton era were not explicitly addressed, but this also highlights a more significant move towards detente and cooperation as we begin to see the emergence of a new global economy. Therefore, the post-Cold War era is an intricate balancing act between the legacies of the Cold War that revolve around international relations, economics, and security issues that mark an evolutionary change of the world order from bipolarity to multiplicity.

Religious

Religious life and institutions were not immune to the impact and consequences of the Cold War that reverberated across the globe and reordered societies in various directions. This involves tracing complex processes and interactions between religious issues, cultures, and political systems in the past. During the Cold War, a mix of religious faith and anti-communism gained popularity in the United States. On the contrary, the Soviet Union and its communist followers organized suppression of religion as a potent enemy threatening communism ideology purity(Bush). A closer inspection of President George’s W. post-9/11 speech sheds light on religious fundamentalism, which underscores the overarching ideological battles and stark contrasts between America’s strong belief in the right to worship and the Communist regime’s hardline position. However, this ideological warfare had transnational consequences where religious freedom became an important issue in international discourses. The impact of the Cold War on religious beliefs, subject to different levels of control and scrutiny, mirrors the complex linkages between spiritual aspects and the political games played during that historical period(“final report on national commission”). Indeed, the legacy of the Cold War continues to permeate societies everywhere throughout the world.

Social Economics

Cold War’s enduring legacy speaks in post-Cold War society norms of security and intricate relations between citizens and states. To a large extent, this report shows how Cold War policies have resulted in prolonged problems at hand- a balancing act between national security and civil rights. The legacy is evident today as modern norms pit individual rights against concerns for national security. The post-9/11 world, as observed by George Bush in his 2002 address, remains strongly influenced by the feelings of the Cold War, which also cast suspicions of the arms race’s shadows on a global level as part of societal security concerns (“final report on national commission”). The persistence of surveillance becomes obvious, showing a refined balance of power between the citizens and the state in an era of changing security threats. Chelsea Manning’s pardoning request further complicates this equation as it highlights the constant tension between government openness, national safety, and civil rights. The narrative of continuity, which is visible in economic, political, and social aspects, determines the movements of society, security measures, and balancing personal freedom.

Therefore, the lasting economic, spiritual, and cultural legacies of the post–Cold War continue to determine global identities that are anything but simple. Contemporary geopolitical alliances reflect a vigorous arms race and transformative economic policies. Ongoing conflict between religious freedom, national interests, and cultural expression perpetuates Cold War antagonisms. The intricate interplay between personal liberties and collective safety during contemporary times has redefined what we call the post-Cold War age. It illustrates how we live in an evolving world.

Work Cited

William J. Clinton, “Remarks on Signing the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act,” December 8, 1993. Available online via The American Presidency Project (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=46216);

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (Washington, D.C., 2004). Available online via The 9/11 Commission (http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/)

George W. Bush, “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union,” January 29, 2002. Available online via The American Presidency Project (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29644)

Statement of Chelsea Manning, as Read by his Attorney, David Coombs, on August 21, 2013. Available via Democracy Now!

(https://www.democracynow.org/2013/8/21/