Specialisation: Annotated Bibliography

Long-Term Negative Effects of Social Media on Adolescents and Young Adults

Social media culture is currently part of the adolescents’ and youths’ culture. Statistics show that over 90% of teens and adolescents between 13 and 25 are active social media users. Over 75% have one or more active social media platforms, 51% of whom visit them daily (Gao et al., 2020). With current technological advancement, social media use among adolescents and young adults is inevitable despite the multiple impacts. Research studies present social media as positive and negative, but most reveal disadvantages rather than advantages (Robinson & Smith, 2020). On the positive side, social media use promotes social connectedness, providing many opportunities for adolescents and young adults to discover new information, engage with various social issues, learn about current events, and explore their identities (Akram & Kumar, 2017). It also serves as an educational tool.

In contrast, the adverse effects of social media use on adolescents and young people are more profound and evident. These include cyberbullying, addiction time wastage, the spread of misinformation, social isolation, and loneliness, as well as a decline in face-to-face interactions, leading to a loss of personal appeal (Robinson & Smith, 2020). Other long-term adverse effects include polarization, comparison, envy, decreased privacy, echo chambers, cyberstalking, and harassment. Most of these adverse impacts have a significant influence on adolescents and young adults’ psychological and mental health (Gao et al., 2020). Even with these multiple disadvantages, social media use among adolescents remains inevitable. It is essential to guide the most affected groups in society to adopt healthy social media behaviors.

Annotated Bibliography

Fox, J., & Moreland, J. J. (2015). The dark side of social networking sites: Exploring the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances. Computers in human behaviorpp. 45, 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.083

Jennifer Moreland is a long-time medical practitioner at The Research Institute and Nationwide Children’s Hospital, and Jesse Fox is a university teacher at Ohio State University. The two are well-known scholars who jointly researched the dark side of social networking platforms. The study gives essential insights into the adverse effects of social media networks, especially Facebook, which is the most used platform. The authors discuss stressors from these networks, including relationship conflict and tension, jealousy, and social comparisons. According to Fox and Moreland, users of social media networks face fear of keeping up with and miss the demands of relationship maintenance.

The article was chosen for the study because it gives good insights into some adverse effects of social media, especially the most used platform, Facebook. The findings relate to the current research question, “What are the long-term negative effects of social media on adolescents and young adults?”. The article will provide vital information to support the current research project’s claims and arguments. Insights from Fox and Moreland on impacts like depression will be helpful. The article answers the research question by giving some examples of the effects brought by social media on teens, including social media comparison, relationship conflicts, and tension. These examples will act as supporting information for the research. Its insights help devices solve the problem of social media for adolescents—for example, stress management techniques.

Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., … & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during the COVID-19 outbreak. Plos one15(4), e0231924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924

The article authors are lecturers for public health at Fudan University in China and are also scholars. They have relevant knowledge and experiences on issues and topics relating to mental health and, therefore, can write a good source on psychological problems that come with social media. Their study explored various mental health issues associated with exposure to social media, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. People spenting more time on social media since the containment measures caused limited physical interactions. In the article, the authors explored the extent of psychological problems associated with social media, with Wuhan as their case study.

According to the article, the prevalence of anxiety and depression among adolescents and young adults has increased to 48.3% following the prolonged use of online sites like Facebook during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article revealed that rumors and misinformation spread through social media contribute to mental health problems such as stigma, fear, and anxiety. The study’s findings revealed that spending excessive time on the Internet leads to mass trauma, something that affected most adolescents and young adults during COVID. Most of the psychological health issues faced by people result from peer pressure that is facilitated through misinformation across social media platforms. The misinformation may be in terms of appearances, lifestyles, and achievements.

The article was chosen for the current study because it shares resourceful insights on the negative consequences of people’s exposure to social media. The study findings are based on the testable results generated through an in-depth investigation of the Wuhan case study experiment. These findings are considered helpful in providing research-based answers to the current study’s research question. The article answers the research questions by providing examples of the negative consequences of social media on teens, including anxiety, stigma, and fear. The article’s findings reveal how spending excessive time on the Internet contributes to mass trauma, and this is a good answer to the research question. The source will still help search for ways to reduce time spent on social media.

Oberst, U., Wegmann, E., Stodt, B., Brand, M., & Chamarro, A. (2017). Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out. Journal of Adolescence55, 51-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.12.008

Ursula Oberst teaches at Ramon Llull University in the psychology department; Elisa Wegmann, Benjamin Stodt, and Matthias Brand are general psychology teachers at Duisburg-Essen University; and Andrés Chamarro is a lecturer at Autonomous University. They jointly researched the negative consequences of adolescents’ excessive use of social media networking (Oberst et al., 2017). As prominent authors on psychology-related issues, the article authors have much relevant knowledge of how social media can affect adolescents’ mental health.

The study findings revealed that SNS (social networking sites) are very attractive to adolescents, and their excessive use causes various adverse psychological consequences. For example, the authors revealed that adolescents and young adults are the primary victims of depression and anxiety caused by the excessive use of social media platforms. Peer pressure makes adolescents compare themselves with others based on their posts without considering the credibility and truth of the information they post. This, in turn, causes anxiety and unattainable life expectations, which affect their quality of life. According to the article, the most common social media platforms impacting the physiological well-being of adolescents include Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, and Twitter.

The article was chosen for the current study because it is peer-reviewed, and the research findings documented are within the scope of the study, which is the long-term effects of social media. It answers the research question by revealing different ways in which excessive use of social media platforms negatively impacts the mental health of adolescents. Examples of such answers include depression and anxiety. By understanding these adverse effects, solutions are available to solve such a problem that affects teens and young adults. It also provides essential and relevant insights that support the current research question. The study also explores social media dynamics and their impact on different social groups, including adolescents and young adults.

Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR mental health3(4), e5842. https://mental.jmir.org/2016/4/e50

Elizabeth Seabrook is a clinical and cognitive neuroscience lecturer at Monash University, and Margaret Kern is a psychology lecturer at the University of Melbourne. Nikki Rickard is also a lecturer. The three scholars are long-time authors of various psychology and mental health articles. Seabrook et al.’s (2016) article shares vital information about social networking platforms and their effects on users. The article explores how SNSs (social networking sites) have become pervasive in our modern culture, increasing the negative impact on users’ mental health. The article’s primary objective was to determine the context of anxiety and depression as some of the critical effects of the SNSs. It also assesses mental illness, measuring how an individual’s psychological well-being is affected by social media. The study findings revealed how unfavorable social comparisons and interactions through SNSs contribute to higher and increased levels of anxiety and depression among social media users. Other negative impacts include reduced self-esteem due to comparing achievements attained by different individuals seen on online networking platforms. The author’s assertions offer essential educational information about social media and its adverse impacts on addicted people.

The source was chosen for the current study because it explores the possible negative impacts of social media on its users, which is within the scope of the subject study topic. The study topic is the long-term adverse effects of social media on adolescents and young adults. The article revealed inevitable adverse consequences of excessive use of social media platforms that are relevant to answering the current study’s primary research question. These adverse effects, as answers to the research question, include increased anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduced self-esteem. The other significant effect that will help build the current research is the addictive part of SNSs. Knowledge and understanding of these negative repercussions of social media on youths will help to back up arguments on the research topic. The article was also chosen for the study because it is peer-reviewed, easily navigable, and accessible for reference and acknowledgment.

Robinson, L., & Smith, C. (2020, January 16). Social media and mental health. HelpGuide.org. https://www.helpguide.org/articles/mental-health/social-media-and-mental-health.htm

Lawrence Robinson and Merida Smith are managing directors of the Help Guide Writing Organization and reputable scholars. They jointly researched the relationship between social media use and the user’s mental health. The author’s website publication about social media and mental health revealed a strong link between adverse long-term impacts and consequences of excessive social media use and higher self-harm, depressive symptoms, loneliness, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety. Robinson and Smith (2020) state that inadequacy significantly affects an individual’s appearance and life. The authors state that although people know that most images posted across social media platforms are manipulated, they feel insecure and incomplete regarding physical appearance and lifestyle. Social media platforms enhance connectedness, enabling people from the global divide to share personal life experiences and achievements, something that causes peer pressure, anxiety, depression, and a sense of non-performance for those who have accomplished little in their lives. The website’s publication by these reputable scholars also explored the adverse effects of social media addiction on its users. Yes, using social media is inevitable, given the level of technological advancement. Still, its addiction leads to time waste, loneliness, and a lack of personal appeal, something that can subject the victims to anxiety and depressive disorders.

Instagram and Facebook postings exaggerate an individual’s achievements, especially for those who have not achieved as much. As a result, most social media users suffer from low self-esteem and anxiety. The publication further discussed depression and cyberbullying as among the critical negative consequences of social media on its users. According to the authors, at least 10% of the teens using social media fall into cyberbullying traps, something that impacts their mental well-being. For example, the offensive comments posted about teens’ physical appearances and lack of social authority are demoralizing and assaultive, contributing to their low self-esteem and anxiety. Prolonged cyberbullying experiences could lead to suicidal thoughts, as victims may feel like they do not fit in with society.

The article was chosen for the current study because it meets the CRAAP test criteria and explores various adverse effects of social media use, which are within the scope. The source provides some essential answers to the research question, which includes low self-esteem due to comparisons of physical appearances, depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety. Since the above answers fit well in addressing the research question since they are theprecisely consequences teens face while spending time on social media. Information from this source also will serve as evidence to back up research. The article’s analysis proves its resourcefulness by offering insightful information necessary to answer the current research question. Again, the current research topic is a review of the long-term adverse effects of social media on adolescents and young adults.

Akram, W., & Kumar, R. (2017). A study on positive and negative effects of social media on society. International journal of computer sciences and engineering5(10), 351–354. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Waseem-Akram 19/publication/323903323_A_Study_on_Positive_and_Negative_Effects_of_Social_Media_on_Society

Akram and Kumar are computer application teachers at GDC Mendhar in India. The two are also well-known and reputable scholars on social issues. They jointly researched social media’s positive and negative effects on society. According to their study findings, social media improves social connectedness and is an educational tool, especially for current events. However, it has multiple adverse consequences for society. Examples of those consequences covered in the article include social media use addictions, misinformation, online scams, fraud, unethical hacking, time wastage, failing in school, and cyber harassment. The learners are most affected by the increased screen time and lack of academic concentration as they are actively present on the most common social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. The article reveals that school-going children consistently suffer from cyberbullying through abusive comments and immoral online content that could affect their mental well-being.

Similarly, online fraud and scamming have increased as social media platforms have become a money-making tool through digital advertisements. People lose money via scams and fraud. The misinformation facilitated through social media postings damages individuals and organizations. This misinformation on individual and organizational profiling is facilitated by individuals who only care about serving their interests. For businesses, false information could reduce their customer base and overall market share significantly. Lastly, excessive use of social media platforms reduces real-time and physical human contact, destroying personal appeal and the capability to build relationships. Physical socialization is becoming a thing of the past as most people emphasize communication through online platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and WhatsApp.

The article was chosen for the current study because it gives vital insights into real-life situations on social media and their negative consequences. The adverse effects given by the article, including addictions, misinformation, online scams, fraud, unethical hacking, time wastage, failing in school, and cyber harassment, are exact answers to the research question. These insights will also help to support the claims of the research project. The findings document the serious adverse effects of social media use on society, which are within the scope of my research project. Information from the source will also aid in solving the problem that comes with the prolonged use of social media. Lastly, the article is peer-reviewed, meets CRAAP test criteria, and is published in an accredited database by reputable scholars, making it the most credible for the current study.

Kim, H. H. S. (2017). The impact of online social networking on adolescent psychological well-being (WB): a population-level analysis of Korean school-aged children. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth22(3), 364–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2016.1197135

Harris Hyun-soo Kim is a scholar and lecturer in the Sociology Department at the University of Ewha Woman in the Korean Republic. He shares multiple insights on how online media exposure affects teens’ mental well-being. Kim’s (2017) study extensively surveyed Korean youths using the most recent mental health data. The researcher sought to determine whether using social networking technologies and online platforms like Facebook has negative or positive impacts and outcomes on the adolescent’s physiological well-being. To elaborate on its points, the author explained how youths and adolescents believe and do things through imitation, comparisons, and peer pressure, making them vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of excessive social media use. Internet platforms like Instagram contribute to long-term aggressive behaviors, thoughts, and physiological arousal.

According to Kim’s (2017) article, adolescents adopt aggressive tendencies and antisocial attitudes through social media use. The peer pressure makes them prone to substance abuse disorders and negative self-perceptions. Again, adolescents make online comparisons in terms of physical appearance and the dress code and sometimes feel uncomfortable with themselves. The pressure to upgrade their physical appearance leads to immoral dress codes, something that exposes them to physical and sexual assaults. The study findings revealed that social media use lowers adolescents’ self-worth and esteem, exposing them to risks of depression, suicidal thoughts, and stress. It also exposes them to cyberbullying, distress, and poor mental functioning.

The article was chosen for the study because it focuses more on how adolescents are affected negatively by social media, which is also the most vulnerable group worth focus. Sufficient insights concerning social media and its effects on the users’ mental well-being are provided, forming the basis for answering the current research question. It also provides multiple answers to the research question including risks of depression, suicidal thoughts, stress, and exposure to cyberbullying, leading to poor mental functioning and distress. Various evidence from the article will help support my research project’s arguments.

Allcott, H., Braghieri, L., Eichmeyer, S., & Gentzkow, M. (2020). The welfare effects of social media. American Economic Review110(3), 629-676. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/aer.20190658

Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow are research associates in economics at Stanford University. Luca Braghieri and Sarah Eichmeyer are lecturers in decision sciences at Bocconi University. The four authors are also scholars of economics, decision science, and mental health issues. They jointly researched social media’s effects on social welfare (Allcott et al., 2020).

The article by Allcott et al. (2020) explores how social media profoundly affects our modern world. It flagged Facebook as the leading platform and a significant contributor to some psychological problems for its users. The study findings revealed numerous harms and various negative consequences of social media. For example, social media’s mental health is highly affected by the excessive use of Twitter and Facebook, which subjects people to depression and stress. These mental health issues result from things like harassment, insults, and social comparisons. Increased screen time is among the leading causes of these effects, exposing the victims to various stressors.

The article was chosen for the current study because it offers a lot of content relevant to the current research topic. The study sought to study the long-term adverse effects of social media on adolescents and young adults. The article pinpointed and explored specific negative effects of social media use on people and society, which forms the basis for answering the current study’s research topic. It also answers research questions such as stress, social comparisons, harassment, and insults. The article shows the mental health effects of the Internet on teens and young adults, and such information backs up the claims of the research project. The source is also credible and published in an accredited database like Google Scholar.

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social media use and mental health among young adults. Psychiatric Quarterlypp. 89, 307–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-017-9535-6

Chloe Berryman and Charles Nagy lectured at Central Florida University and Christopher Ferguson at Stetson University in the United States. They are also prominent scholars on social media and social life matters. The authors jointly researched the effects of social media use on mental health among young adults. They revealed various adverse psychological health outcomes associated with the use of social media platforms. These effects include decreased empathy, suicidality, and loneliness. They also pinpointed that social anxiety is among the most common mental health problems associated with social media use.

The article was chosen for the current study because it investigated matters within the planned project scope. It gives numerous answers to the research question like psychological health effects, including suicidality, loneliness, and decreased empathy. These insights will serve as the supporting evidence for the research. Multiple ideas from this article will aid in writing concrete and good research papers. The article focused on issues concerning adverse consequences associated with social media, which directly relate to the current study. It still helps to get insights into solving the problem of long online spending. The article is also peer-reviewed, easily accessible, and more well-organized and structured to comprehend.

Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking17(10), 652–657. https://doi.org/10.1089%2Fcyber.2014.0070

Dr. Igor Pantic is a lecturer of medical psychology at the University of Belgrade and a reputable author on mental health issues. He shares essential information on profound interaction and communication changes from past decades of social media networking. Such changes lead to psychiatric disorders. Pantic’s (2014) article explores how prolonged spending on social media networking platforms like Facebook relates to depression and reduced self-esteem, especially for adolescents and children. Social media use addiction makes adolescents and young adults consume much of their productive time on different social media sites, hence impacting their ability to pursue life goals. It also affects the learner’s academic performance through time waste. Other adverse effects of social media use explored in the article include increased prevalence of personality disorder, reduced self-esteem, and anxiety and depressive symptoms.

The article was chosen for the study because it explored different adverse effects of social media use on adolescents, which is within the current study’s scope. It provides a variety of answers to research questions to choose and support the project, including; affecting learner’s academic performance and results through time-wasting, increased dominance of personality disorder, low self-esteem, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Other answers are addiction, psychiatric disorders, and more time on screens. Information from the source will give some supporting evidence to back up claims of the research evidence. It offers relevant and insightful information supporting the research project’s claim. The most relevant information explored includes various adverse effects of social media use.

Reflection

While tackling this work, I reached out to peers and got some essential insights from them about my research topic: the long-term adverse effects of social media on adolescents and young adults. I also compared their ideas with mine to see whether I was on the right track. I also connected with our librarian to gather more ideas.

In doing my research, I used the Google search engine and Google Scholar. I used key terms such as “negative impacts of social media.” The reason for using these searches is because they are available at any time and are user-friendly. The seeking process is going well with the help of Google Search and Scholar. I have obtained essential insights about my topic so far.

For my source list and annotations, I chose the APA style for formatting my work because it is simple and preferred by most researchers. In finding my sources, I have included articles and websites. The peis more exciting since it entails a thorough process to ensure everything is done correctly. I have nothing to worry about since there is good guidance on how it should be done.

My work shows good progress towards accounting for our course learning outcomes. I have followed instructions and tried to portray good communication and writing skills regarding the course. In my work, there is a source list with an introduction of the source, the reason for choosing it, and why its information is suitable. It also acknowledged the outside information from the sources by citing them.

References

Akram, W., & Kumar, R. (2017). A study on positive and negative effects of social media on societyrocess International journal of computer sciences and engineering5(10), 351–354. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Waseem-Akram 19/publication/323903323_A_Study_on_Positive_and_Negative_Effects_of_Social_Media_on_Society

Allcott, H., Braghieri, L., Eichmeyer, S., & Gentzkow, M. (2020). The welfare effects of social media. American Economic Review110(3), 629-676. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/aer.20190658

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social media use and mental health among young adults. Psychiatric Quarterlypp. 89, 307–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-017-9535-6

Fox, J., & Moreland, J. J. (2015). The dark side of social networking sites: Exploring the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances. Computers in human behaviorpp. 45, 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.083

Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., … & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during the COVID-19 outbreak. Plos one15(4), e0231924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924

Kim, H. H. S. (2017). The impact of online social networking on adolescent psychological well-being (WB): a population-level analysis of Korean school-aged children. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth22(3), 364–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2016.1197135

Oberst, U., Wegmann, E., Stodt, B., Brand, M., & Chamarro, A. (2017). Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out. Journal of Adolescence55, 51-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.12.008

Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking17(10), 652–657. https://doi.org/10.1089%2Fcyber.2014.0070

Robinson, L., & Smith, C. (2020, January 16). Social media and mental health. HelpGuide.org. https://www.helpguide.org/articles/mental-health/social-media-and-mental-health.htm

Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR mental health3(4), e5842. https://mental.jmir.org/2016/4/e50

Annotated Bibliography: Poverty and Social Class

Alm, S., Nelson, K., & Nieuwenhuis, R. (2020). The diminishing power of one? Welfare state retrenchment and rising poverty of single-adult households in Sweden 1988–2011. European Sociological Review36(2), 198-217.

This study examines how welfare state retrenchment affected the economic status of single-person households in Sweden between 1988 and 2019. Alm, Nelson and Nieuwenhuis examine the connection between social policy change and increases in poverty rates for singles. In their analysis of welfare policies, they demonstrate that single-adult families are very vulnerable to retrenchment measures. Statistical data and socioeconomic indicators are used in this study to clarify the negative impacts of policy changes on this particular element. Since Sweden is usually praised for its welfare state, this study comments on the complex nature of poverty within a presumed stable social security framework.

De Bruijn, E. J., & Antonides, G. (2022). Poverty and economic decision making: a review of scarcity theory. Theory and Decision92(1), 5-37.

In the article by De Bruijn and Antonides (2022), a critical review of scarcity theory regarding poverty relating to economic decision-making concepts is presented. The authors in this article, published in the Journal of Theory and Decision, summarize various academic works to portray how scarcity is directly related to individuals’ choices in situations where they are living in poverty. The review pays attention to how limited resources impact the process of cognitive generation, decision biases and behavioral effects. Through its detailed discussion of the scarcity theory, this work contributes to our knowledge of how economic deprivation affects choice strategies. The principal value of this article lies in synthesizing the available empirical evidence and theoretical frameworks. This offers essential ideas for scholars and policymakers willing to deal with complex poverty-related dynamics affecting economic decision-making.

Desmond, M. (2022). Unaffordable America: Poverty, housing, and Eviction: American Journal of Sociology. In The Affordable Housing Reader (pp. 389–395). Routledge.

Matthew Desmond’s contribution to The Affordable Housing Reader, titled “Unaffordable America: The article: Poverty, housing, and Eviction published in the American Journal of Sociology, examines the nature of the relationship between poverty on one hand path to provide a better definition of for cities, housing and evictions in the US. This chapter focuses on the structural problems underpinning the unaffordability crisis, revealing the intricacies behind such a phenomenon and explaining why homeless groups face housing insecurity in their daily lives. Desmond’s research goes beyond the typical academic realms and adds unique observations to being able or not to access housing in a broader perspective of other socioeconomic issues. By presenting this piece in The Affordable Housing Reader, the author helps understand poverty-related problems from different perspectives. This, therefore, makes it an essential tool for researchers, policymakers and advocates dealing with the problem of equity in housing.

Lubbers, M. J., Small, M. L., & García, H. V. (2020). Do networks help people to manage poverty? Perspectives from the field. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science689(1), 7-25.

In their work The Role of Social Networks in Poverty Management; Field Perspectives, Lubbers, Small and García underlined annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science present compelling field perspectives. Their research was released in 2020 and explores the role of interpersonal relations for people to overcome poverty. The authors, therefore, shed some light on the everyday experiences of people going through conditions related to poor economic provision. This contributes to addressing poverty alleviation from a social perspective. This paper is essential for scholars and practitioners involved in studying social support systems to reveal complicated mechanisms within individuals struggling against poverty.

Lugo-Ocando, J. (2020). The ‘changing face of media discourses on poverty in the age of populism and anti-globalization: The political appeal of anti-modernity and certainty in Brazil. International Communication Gazette82(1), 101-116.

Based on the background of populism and anti-globalization, Lugo-Ocando’s research in 2020, published by the International Communication Gazette, focuses on media narratives about poverty as they evolve within Brazil. The paper discusses how political dynamics take advantage of the anti-modern moods and quest for certainty by structuring media rhetoric regarding poverty. In this regard, Lugo-Ocando analyses where media intersects with politics and socioeconomic concerns; he does so to offer vital information on how the public perceives poverty and political strategies during times of populism along with connected anti-globalization movements in Brazil.

Marwell, N. P., & Morrissey, S. L. (2020). Organizations and the governance of urban poverty. Annual Review of Sociologypp. 46, 233–250.

Marwell, N. P., and MorrisseyS.L.2020 Organizations and the governance of urban poverty is published in the Annual Review of Sociology, providing an insightful examination of how organizations shape administrative bodies concerningpoverishment. The article, published in 2020, examines how organizations play a part in influencing policies as well as practices associated with urban poverty. Marwell and Morrissey’s study reveals the intricacies of institutional elements’ functioning and governance structure influence on dealing with city poverty problems. This work is central to the scholars and policymakers interested in having comprehensive knowledge of how organizations influence or are influenced by governing poverty within urban areas, thus leading to the formulation of policies that will help improve social welfare.

Peine, E. K., Azano, A. P., & Schafft, K. A. (2020). Beyond cultural and structural explanations of regional underdevelopment: identity and dispossession in Appalachia. Journal of Appalachian Studies26(1), 40-56.

The article ‘Roots and Routes, identity and Dispossession in Appalachia’ authored by Peine, Azano, and Schafft, provides a deep analysis of the regional underdevelopment condition within the Appalachian. In the research published in 2020, there is a lot more to it than just seeking conventional explanations because she has gone ahead and discussed other things touching on identity as well as dispossession of what happened within this area having an impact on how its socioeconomic shape. Without a limited focus on cultural or structural perspectives, the authors shed light upon subtle patterns that help to understand why underdevelopment occurs where it happens. This article is essential for researchers, policymakers, and advocates who want to understand regional inequalities in total better and offer informative source material for informed intervention and policies in Appalachia.

Royce, E. (2022). Poverty and power: The problem of structural inequality. Rowman & Littlefield.

The main strength of Alan Jenkins and Nadia Lambek’s book, The Problem of Structural Inequality, is the compelling analysis that the authors provide on how poverty acts so intricately with structural inequality. In Royce, released in 2022, delves into systemic issues that continue to fuel poverty and highlights the underlying power structures necessary to sustain hierarchies for structural inequalities. Through addressing the underlying causes of poverty, the author analyses how social aspects contribute to preserving economic inequalities. The proposed manuscript is an invaluable guide for everyone, from scholars and researchers to policymakers and activists who want to understand and cope with the multiform problems created by structural inequality. It provides beneficial instruction for both sides of the debate on discourse and policies regarding poverty.

Simpson Reeves, L., Parsell, C., & Liu, S. (2020). Towards a phenomenology of poverty: defining poverty through the lived experiences of the ‘poor’. Journal of Sociology56(3), 439–454.

In their 2020 article, “Towards a Phenomenology of Poverty: In ‘Defining Poverty through the Lived Experiences of the Poor’, published in The Journal of Sociology, Simpson Reeves, Parsell and Liu offer a powerful insight into poverty from its victims. The authors use the phenomenological methodology, interrelated to depicting situations faced by people in poverty. By placing the narratives of the ‘poor’ centre stage, this study moves beyond descriptive and impressionistic accounts of poverty in poor countries to provide a detailed, well-grounded perspective that captures their lived realities. This study is significant for the researchers and policymakers looking forward to redefining poverty and handling it. It stresses the need to include subjective individual experiences as a basis for more sympathetic and beneficial anti-poverty measures.

Walter, M., & Saggers, S. (2020). Poverty and social class. In Social determinants of indigenous health (pp. 87-107).

Walter and Saggers (2020) provide a compelling overview of poverty in terms of social class through their contribution titled “Poverty and Social Class” in the book Social Determinants of Indigenous Health. According to these sources, this is to be one of the chapters in which the authors discuss determinants of Indigenous health and go deeper into intricate connections between poverty and social class within these communities. By integrating poverty into broader social constructs, this study contributes a significant perspective to the peculiarities faced by Native populations. The chapter is of great importance as one that could be used by readers interested in understanding various aspects contributing to the health outcomes among Indigenous peoples. This underscores the importance of combating poverty from a larger socioeconomic perspective.

Zagel, H., Hübgen, S., & Nieuwenhuis, R. (2022). Diverging trends in single-mother poverty across Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom: Toward a comprehensive explanatory framework. Social Forces101(2), 606-638.

The article by Zagel, Hübgen, and Nieuwenhuis 2022 in Social Forces highlights the differing paths single mother poverty has taken in Germany, Sweden and the UK. In 2022, the authors will build a ‘unified’ causal framework, elaborating on lone mothers’ very different socioeconomic paths in those countries. More specifically, while looking to determine the specific factors that contribute towards single mother poverty in a more nuanced way than it has been done before, this study adds credibility not only to generally accepted mechanisms of influence but also points out which other elements are incorporated into those standards when policy development and societal structures intersect with economic circumstances. This is an essential work for scholars and policymakers interested in understanding single mothers’ unique problems across diverse national settings. It provides an insight far beyond the usual discussions on poverty trends.

Research Summary

This research journey has been a very illuminating experience where I have widened my understanding of the diverse nature of poverty and different social classes. On the other hand, the review of a range of scholarly works has provided me with detailed knowledge. They have shed more light on those subtle dynamics that define poverty and help to maintain it or challenge it. This discussion summarizes the main concepts that emerged during the study process.

A consistent theme throughout the literature is the broad influence structural inequality wields over poverty. Royce contributed to ‘Poverty and Power’ by drawing attention to the systemic problems inherent in maintaining economic inequality. The Simpson Reeves, Parsell, and Liu article on the phenomenological approach was unique in that it defined poverty through the lived experiences of this category labelled ‘poor.’ In essence su, the approaches to mapping our knowledge underscore how important we must go beneath statistical measures to understand individuals. Peine, Azano and Schafft further explored the complexities related to regional underdevelopment in Appalachia brought about by identity and dispossession that perpetuate poverty across unique geographical locations. Marwell and Morrissey’s study on how organizations govern urban poverty demonstrated that organizational policies and practices were conditioned with complex dynamics. These studies draw attention to the required context-sensitive interventions for dealing with the unique challenges of regional disparities.

The research took me into Brazil’s ‘changing’ media discourses and critical investigations into the country’s poverty impressions, which get shaped through public withers. The research also shows that political factors determine the poverty narrative, and the insufficiency of modernism was an anti-modern appeal to certainty. Analyzing media discourses, Lugo-Ocando reveals some patterns in anti-modernity sentiments and the necessity of straightforward answers that shape society’s lackadaisical attitude towards poverty in Brazil. This perspective is invaluable for recognizing the role of media in building and reinforcing certain narrations that can influence policy decisions and also reflect public opinion.

Similarly, Walter and Saggers add to the discussion by studying poverty and social class concerning Social Determinants of Indigenous Health. The concept of social dharma emphasizes the relationship between SDSs and health outcomes, showing that poverty is not simply an economic issue but a critical determinant of one’s overall welfare. The article emphasizes that social determinants such as poverty and the level of their societal position play an essential role in developing health differences among indigenous peoples. This broad viewpoint reflects that poverty is not the only challenge but occurs in connection to multiple socioeconomic dimensions, synergistically affecting health outcomes.

In combination, these observations help to highlight the fact that media plays a central role in shaping societal understandings of poverty, as does provide socioeconomic context. The way media depicts poor people can either reinforce stereotypes and stigmas or create a more sophisticated image that acknowledges the multifacetedness of challenges faced by individuals who find themselves living in poverty. The above acknowledgement that health outcomes are interconnected with socioeconomic factors places more emphasis on the necessity for holistic strategies targeting poverty as a multi-faceted issue. These dynamics should be factored into the agenda of policymakers and communicators. There is a need for informed public discourse to address the underlying causes of poverty besides stimulating holistic well-being.

The research enhanced the level of my understanding of poverty. Their study concerns the conflicting developments of single-mother impoverishment in Germany, Sweden, and the UK, rendering a precise insight and adding something plausible to an inclusive descriptive model. It looks at single mothers’ different socioeconomic paths in these separate nations. This research also focuses on the importance of cultural, economic and policy-related considerations in any understanding of poverty dynamics.

However, this international view emphasizes the fact that poverty is not a similar experience but, instead, profoundly lies in socio-cultural settings attributed to every nation. It recognizes the contextuality of poverty determinants regarding cultural standards, economic systems and policy arrangements. The study points out that strategies towards poverty reduction cannot be considered universalities but depend on particular conditions and challenges attributed to individuals in cultural and national frames.

In addition, the research calls for a review of our approach to studies on poverty and policy development. Perceiving the varying nature of single motherhood in diverse countries prompts one to drop unfounded generalizations about poverty. Distinctively, policymakers and researchers should address the unique socioeconomic contexts that cause poverty to be quite complex in every country. The latter can be prevented by inclusiveness in research and a culturally sensitive approach to those issues, thus helping to understand single mothers’ challenges better internationally.

Engaging in this research journey has revealed an intricate web of poverty, weaving structural iniquities with regional displeasures, the media’s role, and a global lens. These multiple viewpoints have synthesized and helped generate a deep understanding of the complex dynamics concerning poverty and social strata. The results of this study cannot be more precise on the necessity for an all-inclusive approach, which takes contexts into account to redress multilayered dimensions linked to poverty. Working towards a fairer society requires recognition and effective response to the complex relationships among socioeconomic determinants of poverty, which not only facilitate but also sustain it—used as a cornerstone for well-reasoned discussions, vigorous policy development and specific targeted intervention programs to overcome the devastating impact of poverty on individuals worldwide effectively. As the identified factors are interrelated, this research line provides all the essential instruments. They are necessary to ensure significant improvements and create a brighter, more equal future for everyone.

References

Alm, S., Nelson, K., & Nieuwenhuis, R. (2020). The diminishing power of one? Welfare state retrenchment and rising poverty of single-adult households in Sweden 1988–2011. European Sociological Review36(2), 198-217. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcz053

De Bruijn, E. J., & Antonides, G. (2022). Poverty and economic decision making: a review of scarcity theory. Theory and Decision92(1), 5-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11238-021-09802-7

Desmond, M. (2022). Unaffordable America: Poverty, housing, and Eviction: American Journal of Sociology. In The Affordable Housing Reader (pp. 389–395). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429299377-34/unaffordable-america-poverty-housing-eviction-matthew-desmond

Lubbers, M. J., Small, M. L., & García, H. V. (2020). Do networks help people to manage poverty? Perspectives from the field. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science689(1), 7-25.https://doi.org/10.1177/000271622092395

Lugo-Ocando, J. (2020). The ‘changing face of media discourses on poverty in the age of populism and anti-globalization: The political appeal of anti-modernity and certainty in Brazil. International Communication Gazette82(1), 101-116. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048519880749

Marwell, N. P., & Morrissey, S. L. (2020). Organizations and the governance of urban poverty. Annual Review of Sociologypp. 46, 233–250. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-054708

Peine, E. K., Azano, A. P., & Schafft, K. A. (2020). Beyond cultural and structural explanations of regional underdevelopment: identity and dispossession in Appalachia. Journal of Appalachian Studies26(1), 40-56. https://doi.org/10.5406/jappastud.26.1.0040

Royce, E. (2022). Poverty and power: The problem of structural inequality. Rowman & Littlefield. https://cir.nii.ac.jp/crid/1130000794091567232\

Simpson Reeves, L., Parsell, C., & Liu, S. (2020). Towards a phenomenology of poverty: defining poverty through the lived experiences of the ‘poor’. Journal of Sociology56(3), 439–454. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783319851204

Walter, M., & Saggers, S. (2020). Poverty and social class. In Social determinants of indigenous health (pp. 87-107). Routledge.https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781003117247-5/poverty-social-class-maggie-walter-sherry-saggers

Zagel, H., Hübgen, S., & Nieuwenhuis, R. (2022). Diverging trends in single-mother poverty across Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom: Toward a comprehensive explanatory framework. Social Forces101(2), 606-638. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soab142

Food Insecurity in Urban Areas Bibliography

Introduction

Food insecurity affects many urban neighborhoods worldwide. The inability to afford nutritious food is a significant public health issue. Urban food insecurity is growing and can harm people. Food insecure households are more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and other diet-related diseases, according to research. Due to a lack of inexpensive and healthy dietary options, urban residents are more likely to develop these diseases. Due to financial and dietary stress, food-insecure persons may develop anxiety and depression. After reading various articles, I shall analyze food insecurity in cities and possible solutions in this essay.

Bibliography

Headey, D., Goudet, S., Lambrecht, I., Maffioli, E. M., Oo, T. Z., & Russell, T. (2022). Poverty and food insecurity during COVID-19: Phone-survey evidence from rural and urban Myanmar in 2020. Global Food Security33, 100626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2022.100626. In order to determine the level of poverty and food insecurity during the pandemic, this study used phone surveys conducted in 2020 among Myanmar’s rural and urban populations. According to the findings, there were instances where urban food insecurity exceeded that of rural food insecurity, and since 2018, things have gotten worse. The results imply that the decline of participant assets and job uncertainty may be the primary causes of the worsening of food insecurity in metropolitan regions. The study also revealed that food insecurity was highest in the poorest households (those with a daily income of less than $3 US). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the sexes. The authors stress the necessity to ensure the efficacy of such tactics in light of the present food crisis and offer solutions to alleviate food insecurity in urban settings, such as income-support programs to enable disadvantaged households to get food (Headey et al., 2022).

Tacoli, C. (2019). The urbanization of food insecurity and malnutrition. Environment and Urbanization31(2), 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247819867255. This article comprehensively examines studies on food insecurity and malnutrition in urban regions, along with an analysis of relevant policies and initiatives. The author emphasizes the scarcity of dependable and comprehensive data regarding the magnitude of urban food insecurity. They point out significant differences within cities and populations, frequently concealed by average figures and combined statistics. The essay highlights the significance of urban planning, urban agriculture initiatives, and employment resources in enhancing food security (Tacoli, 2019).

This article also underscores the influence of gender, income, and other social variables on urban food insecurity and malnutrition. In addition, the paper explores tactics for achieving sustainable urban growth that simultaneously tackles food security concerns, including enhancing food availability and distribution, alleviating poverty, and fostering employment opportunities. The study finishes by emphasizing the significance of acknowledging urban food insecurity’s complex and dynamic character, encompassing multiple dimensions and sectors.

Sisha, T. A. (2020). Household level food insecurity assessment: Evidence from panel data, Ethiopia. Scientific Africanp. 7, e00262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00262. This study uses panel data to examine the factors contributing to food insecurity in urban regions of Ethiopia. The findings suggest that many household attributes, including income, education level, land ownership status, and environmental factors, significantly impact food insecurity among urban households in Ethiopia. The study specifically discovered a decrease in food insecurity within the observed time frame, notably linked to higher levels of educational attainment. The authors highlight the importance of educating individuals in urban households to enhance their food security in addition to existing measures to reduce food insecurity (Sisha, 2020). Furthermore, implementing policies that specifically target the fundamental root causes of food insecurity, such as poverty, can effectively diminish the occurrence of food insecurity within urban areas.

Anand, S., Jagadeesh, K., Adelina, C., & Koduganti, J. (2019). Urban food insecurity and its determinants: A baseline study of Bengaluru. Environment and Urbanization31(2), 421-442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247819861899. This study assessed the magnitude of food insecurity in Bengaluru, India, and determined the main factors linked to it. The findings revealed that food insecurity at the local level is a widespread problem in urban Bengaluru, with households having approximately a 20% greater likelihood of experiencing food insecurity compared to homes in rural areas (Anand et al., 2019). Poverty, unemployment, limited financial understanding and assistance, insufficient education, advanced household age, and bigger household size were found to be highly associated with increased food insecurity. This study provided a significant understanding of India’s current urban food poverty picture and emphasized the importance of directing efforts toward minimizing food insecurity in urban areas. Resolving food insecurity in urban areas can be accomplished by implementing initiatives such as increasing economic opportunities, strengthening social protection and assistance programs, improving access to safety nets, and upgrading infrastructure.

McLoughlin, G. M., McCarthy, J. A., McGuirt, J. T., Singleton, C. R., Dunn, C. G., & Gadhoke, P. (2020). Addressing food insecurity through a health equity lens: a case study of large urban school districts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Urban Healthpp. 97, 759–775. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11524-020-00476-0. This article scrutinizes the problem of food insecurity in main metropolitan school districts during the COVID-19 epidemic, focusing on health equity. The authors employ a case study to examine the ramifications of food insecurity on students, staff, and family members within school districts and delineate methods that these districts might implement to tackle the issue of food insecurity. The results of this article indicate that numerous metropolitan school districts continue to face the issue of restricted food availability despite endeavors to encourage the provision of meals, food pantries, and other support services (McLoughlin et al., 2020). The results additionally indicate the necessity of prioritizing strengthening current links between local food banks and community organizations, as well as federal nutrition programs, which should be done alongside efforts to enhance food’s physical and financial availability. The authors highlight the necessity of adopting a comprehensive and multisectoral strategy to tackle food insecurity during the pandemic.

Murrell, A., & Jones, R. (2020). Measuring food insecurity using the food abundance index: Implications for economic, health and social well-being. International journal of environmental research and public health17(7), 2434. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072434. This article uses the food abundance index to measure the extent of food insecurity in metropolitan areas. The outcomes of this study suggest that food insecurity is a distinguished concern in urban settings, mainly influenced by wealth, education, and employment inequality. The authors pointed out the significance of employing the food abundance index to evaluate food insecurity concerning the quantity, quality, and accessibility of food and the conventional measure of household food insecurity. This article additionally outlines treatments and tactics to tackle the issue of urban food insecurity, including implementing cash transfer programs, enhancing the availability of fresh and nutritious food, and supporting initiatives to promote food literacy. The authors emphasize that promoting healthy, sustainable, and equitable food systems is crucial in tackling urban food insecurity and improving economic, health, and social well-being (Murrell & Jones, 2020).

Bhuyan, B., Sahoo, B. K., & Suar, D. (2020). Food insecurity dynamics in India: A synthetic panel approach. Social Sciences & Humanities Open2(1), 100029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100029. This study used a synthetic panel approach to look into food insecurity in India. The results showed a strong affiliation between food insecurity in rural and urban areas and poverty, the educational achievement of household heads, and work prestige. In addition, the results showed that compared to those in rural areas, those in urban areas were more likely to suffer from food insecurity (Bhuyan et al., 2020). In order to resolve the issue of food insecurity in India, particularly in urban areas, the authors stressed in their conclusion the necessity for new strategies and policies. The authors also proposed several strategies to minimize food insecurity, including implementing gender-sensitive approaches, reinforcing safety nets and targeted social programs, enhancing nutritional infrastructure, and prioritizing access to a nutritious diet.

Conclusion

In conclusion, food insecurity is a huge problem that affects cities all around the world. The difference in development between those who have access to appropriate resources and those who do not can be exacerbated by it, and it can worsen people’s physical and mental well-being. However, several approaches may be taken to solve this problem, such as enacting laws and establishing charitable organizations that provide low-income individuals with access to meals that are both affordable and nutritious. By conducting research into potential solutions and gaining an understanding of the causes and consequences of the issue, it is possible to minimize the occurrence of food insecurity in urban environments.

References

Anand, S., Jagadeesh, K., Adelina, C., & Koduganti, J. (2019). Urban food insecurity and its determinants: A baseline study of Bengaluru. Environment and Urbanization31(2), 421-442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247819861899

Bhuyan, B., Sahoo, B. K., & Suar, D. (2020). Food insecurity dynamics in India: A synthetic panel approach. Social Sciences & Humanities Open2(1), 100029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100029

Headey, D., Goudet, S., Lambrecht, I., Maffioli, E. M., Oo, T. Z., & Russell, T. (2022). Poverty and food insecurity during COVID-19: Phone-survey evidence from rural and urban Myanmar in 2020. Global Food Security33, 100626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2022.100626

McLoughlin, G. M., McCarthy, J. A., McGuirt, J. T., Singleton, C. R., Dunn, C. G., & Gadhoke, P. (2020). Addressing food insecurity through a health equity lens: a case study of large urban school districts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Urban Healthpp. 97, 759–775. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11524-020-00476-0

Murrell, A., & Jones, R. (2020). Measuring food insecurity using the food abundance index: Implications for economic, health and social well-being. International journal of environmental research and public health17(7), 2434. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072434

Sisha, T. A. (2020). Household level food insecurity assessment: Evidence from panel data, Ethiopia. Scientific Africanp. 7, e00262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00262

Tacoli, C. (2019). The urbanization of food insecurity and malnutrition. Environment and Urbanization31(2), 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247819867255

Mental Health in Children and Adolescents

Did you know that mental health issues have increased rampantly in the past few years? Mental health is essential for children and adolescents because of its implications for people and society. Infants and adolescents develop most mental health difficulties while growing up, which may last a lifetime. These issues are growing globally, impacting 20% of children and adolescents. Mental health issues should be addressed with much caution since they affect the lives of young children and adolescents until they grow into adults. However, many therapies neglect the issue’s complexity and focus on individual solutions. Therefore, understanding the need to address mental health issues in children and adolescents through exploring different research from scholars such as Shah et al., Landstedt, Bortes, and Strandh is crucial.

To begin with, children’s and adolescents’ mental health impacts society. Mental health difficulties often begin in infancy or adolescence and may influence individuals and communities for life, according to the WHO. Several factors keep this age group with mental health concerns, such as academic stress and social pressures, which might worsen anxiety and depression. Also, family dysfunctions such as abuse and neglect may affect mental health. Again, stressful circumstances like violence or grief may also increase mental health issues. In addition, multiple mental health concerns are also inherited, according to studies. Despite its significance, children and adolescents, particularly low-income ones, seldom get mental health treatment due to a lack of social amenities or funds to pay for their medical expenses.

Notably, young people’s mental health issues are becoming a nationwide pandemic that requires prompt government intervention. According to Shah et al.’s 2022 Pediatric Research study, mental health problems are significant and need immediate attention. Again, the study shows how critical comprehensive responses are, which indicates that improved policies and prompt care are required for children’s mental health. Also, the research demonstrates the issue’s gravity. Without immediate action, politicians may fail to treat many young people, causing pain and harming their health (Shah et al. 1208). Therefore, the research makes a compelling case for the need for political action to solve the national crisis in child mental health.

Furthermore, mental problems in teenagers harm more than just their heads since they severely hinder academic performance. In BMC Psychiatry (2021), Landstedt, Bortes, and Strandh’s research found a difference in social performance among school-aged children with mental health. These issues have been shown to impact young people’s feelings and academic achievement. According to Landstedt et al. (2021), “social disparities have a significant impact on youth with mental disorders’ academic performance.” By comprehending this connection, we can see how assisting teenagers with mental health issues improves both their schooling and health (Landstedt et al. 9). Hence, without targeted action, educational disparities and the futures of these young people are in jeopardy.

Moreover, physical and virtual bullying harm children and teens’ mental health, highlighting the need for collaboration to stop it. Li, Chao, et al. studied the adverse effects of bullying on children in European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2022). “Traditional bullying and cyberbullying have been associated with significant mental health problems in children and adolescents” (Li et al. 10). Was this discovered? This shocking study indicates that offline and internet bullying harms vulnerable people’s emotions. Because bullying is so severe, a holistic mental health approach for children and teens must address in-person and online bullying. Without this, many young people’s suffering—who require a helpful and safe environment to grow socially and psychologically—is extended. Thus, all types of bullying must cease for young adults’ and teens mental health.

Nevertheless, different people argue that because families and schools need to address the mental health issues of teenagers and young adults, comprehensive legislation is not necessary. This counterargument claims that adequate mental health treatment is provided for children and teenagers by families and schools and that additional laws exacerbate the problem. While families and schools have a significant role in juvenile mental health, relying only on them ignores the complexity of the issue. Also, uneven care, bullying, and external pressures need a more comprehensive strategy. Laws have the power to fully address these issues and provide mental health treatment for all people, particularly those from low-income households.

Conclusively, a comprehensive strategy is necessary to address the numerous mental health issues that affect children and teenagers. Shah et al. advise passing legislation for this national catastrophe. Landstedt, Bortes, and Strandh demonstrate how mental health affects academic achievement. Li, Chao, et al. claim that there are significant ramifications for both offline and online bullying. Our children’s abilities and health are in jeopardy if we overlook these difficulties. Together, families, schools, and legislators can stop bullying and provide mental health services to everyone.

Annotated Bibliography

Landstedt, Evelina, Cristian Bortes, and Mattias Strandh “Is there a social gradient in how youth with mental disorders perform academically? Findings from a Swedish longitudinal register-based study” BMC Psychiatry 21.1 (2021): 1–12.

Mattias Strandh, Cristian Bortes, and Evelina Landstedt did the study, “Do kids from different social classes do worse or better in school when they have mental health problems?” A Swedish continuous register-based study published in BMC Psychiatry in 2021 examines the complex relationship between academic ability and adolescent mental health across socioeconomic gradients. To investigate how socioeconomic background affects juvenile cognitive health-related academic achievement, the study uses a sizable Swedish longitudinal dataset. Sweden is omitted; hence, the findings of this research are more relevant. The authors use continuous data instead of self-reported data to reduce bias and focus on creating individualized therapy for poor teens who are having mental health and school problems (Landstedt et al. 10). Legislators, educators, and medical professionals may find this trustworthy journal article helpful in improving the mental health and academic achievement of kids with mental health issues.

Li, Chao, et al., “Traditional bullying and cyberbullying in the digital age and its associated mental health problems in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2022): 1–15.

The 2022 meta-analysis by Li, Chao, et al. examines the effects of TB and CB on children’s mental health. Both in tandem and alone, TB and CB modify bullying. Bullied individuals showed startling rates of anxiety, sadness, suicidal ideation, self-harm, and other mental health issues, which calls for improved bullying response and prevention (Li et al. 12). This meta-analysis of the journal on bullying and child mental health is trustworthy and up-to-date. It also encourages a comprehensive response to this significant public health issue.

Shah, Shetal I., and Pediatric Public Policy Council Shah Shetal 2 Patel Mona 3 Raphael Jean 3 Keller David 4 Chamberlain Lisa 4 Devaskar Sherin U. 5 Cheng Tina 5 Javier Joyce 6 Lee Lois 6. “Legislative remedies to mitigate the national emergency in pediatric mental health” Pediatric Research 92.5 (2022): 1207–1209.

The COVID-19 pandemic and children’s mental health are examined by Shah, Shetal I., and the Pediatric Public Policy Council in “Legislative Remedies to mitigate the national emergency in pediatric mental health,” published in Pediatric Research in 2022. The authors assert that the pandemic has made children’s mental health worse. They believe legislation is the only way to address this national tragedy (Shah et al. 1208). The condition strained the health care system, made children unhappy and worried, and made some mental health therapies more difficult. The authors recommend legislation to address the lack of money, mental health professionals, and treatment. This heartfelt editorial in a well-known publication encourages us to appreciate and safeguard the mental health of our country’s youth and to enforce regulations.

Works Cited

Landstedt, Evelina, Cristian Bortes, and Mattias Strandh “Is there a social gradient in how youth with mental disorders perform academically? Findings from a Swedish longitudinal register-based study” BMC Psychiatry 21.1 (2021): 1–12.

Li, Chao, et al., “Traditional bullying and cyberbullying in the digital age and its associated mental health problems in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2022): 1–15.

Shah, Shetal I., and Pediatric Public Policy Council Shah Shetal 2 Patel Mona 3 Raphael Jean 3 Keller David 4 Chamberlain Lisa 4 Devaskar Sherin U. 5 Cheng Tina 5 Javier Joyce 6 Lee Lois 6. “Legislative remedies to mitigate the national emergency in pediatric mental health” Pediatric Research 92.5 (2022): 1207–1209.