The Influence of Public Opinion and Religion on Abortion
Abortion is an extremely argumentative issue in the United States. The issue is controversial, sparking mixed reactions between those who support it and those that go against it. This literature review will focus on eight scholarly sources that would establish public opinions and the effect on religion as regards abortion. This essay aims to examine the potential effects on public opinion, religion, TRAP laws, and their influence on admittance to harmless abortion care.
Public opinion is an important factor when we come to the issue of abortion in the United States. Several factors are believed to shape the conception and understanding of public opinion as regards abortion. Such factors include religious beliefs, age, political beliefs, and an individual’s gender. A study conducted by Adamczyk et al. (2020) established that the issue of abortion is so much complex, and factors such as religion, political thought, regionalism, age, and gender greatly influence abortion. The study incorporated opinion polls, survey data, and interviews, mainly featuring United States women, racial minorities, and young individuals (Adamczyk et al., 2020). The study’s findings indicated that different opinions regarding abortion erupted, and most of the individuals supported women being offered an opportunity to make their own decisions and choices on abortion (Adamczyk et al., 2020). Dissimilarities in opinions were also noted on age, ethnicity, and gender. The Whites were more opposed to abortion than the Latinos and African Americans, who appeared to support it fully.
Another study in the United States revealed that abortion led to negative consequences, particularly for women’s health. Some laws are believed to have resulted in the termination of abortion clinics, implying that abortion is detrimental (Austin & Harper, 2018). According to a study conducted by Austin and Harper, TRAP laws have enabled women to access abortion services; hence their health remains protected. This is because TRAP resulted in the closure of abortion facilities, therefore prohibiting the conduction of abortion. This implies that fewer women will find it possible to access and acquire abortion services. The authors established that TRAP laws have caused delays in accessing abortion and thus increased financial utilization for females seeking abortion care (Austin & Harper 2018). They additionally established that TRAP laws have negatively affected women’s well-being, resulting in reduced admittance to contraception, increased chances of contracting STIs, and increased chances of unplanned pregnancies.
Much debate has erupted on the role of political identity and religion in abortion in the United States. Religious attachments greatly influence a politician’s stance and opinion on abortion. Majorly, politicians who are attached to the Catholic faith strongly oppose abortion. On the other hand, politicians who are non-Christians tend to support abortion strongly. Research by Bhalotra et al. (2021) examined the purpose of religious identity in prompting attitudes concerning abortion. This study discovered that people who classify themselves as religious are likelier to object to abortion than individuals who do not identify as spiritual. The study established that politicians who supported abortion were most likely to receive more votes and support from voters (Bhalotra et al., 2021). This meant that the public views dependent on the politician’s stance on the issue of abortion. The authors concluded that spiritual identity is crucial in determining public opinion on abortion in America.
Research by Cook established that public ideology and politics affect abortion. The study showed that public opinions regarding abortion were dividend as polarization increased in political discourse on the same issue. The study dwelt on dynamic changes in public ideology about abortion and the effects of these changes on the political phenomenon (Cook, 2019). The ideation of abortion in America is complex, and many women are encouraged to carry out abortion or choose for themselves what they deem right and effective for their health (Cook, 2019). It is thus evident that politics and public ideology are free to choose their path as regards abortion. Another study was conducted to determine the looming crisis of access to secure abortion care in America. Strict restrictions have been imposed on securing abortion care in clinics and increased defunding. According to Grossman et al. (2022), fewer women can comfortably access abortion services in clinics. The study included interviews with patients and health providers to determine how to access abortion care (Grossman et al., 2022). The study established that accessing safe abortion in the United States is becoming gradually difficult hence negatively impending women’s health.
Research by Kortsmit et al. (2020) show that abortion rates are gradually decreasing in the United States. The study conducted pregnancies, birth rates, and abortions of different ages females, and it was established that abortions have greatly reduced in the current years. In contrast, the rates of unplanned pregnancies have remained balanced (Kortsmit et al., 2020). This study goes hand in hand with Maddow-Zimet’s study, which establishes that the rates of abortion in the near future will decline. According to this study, since the peak of abortion in the United States in 1980, it is likely that abortion trends and rates will continue to reduce in the upcoming years (Maddow-Zimet, 2022).
Svenaeus (2018) discovered the ethics of abortion and pregnancy in the United States. The study noticed that pregnancy is a multifaceted experience designed by many factors, including some cultural and spiritual beliefs. The author believes that a lot is required regarding ethics regarding abortion (Svenaeus, 2018). Such approaches are believed to bring light to abortion and guarantee that the female’s rights are not taken for granted. Women should be allowed to make their choices as far as their health is concerned. Nobody, even the law, should stand in the way of women’s rights and decisions. Therefore, the study concludes that a strategy on the ethics of abortion is required to ascertain that ladies’ rights are treasured.
Generally, the studies from this literature review exhibit that public ideology on abortion is divided. In the review, the TRAP laws and the politician’s identity impact individual views (Austin & Harper 2018). Moreover, the social media coverage on the issue of abortion is prejudiced, and access to secured abortion is becoming progressively limited in the United States. Also, the trend of unplanned pregnancies has remained secure. Lastly, the ethics regarding abortion are multifaceted and context-reliant, and a person’s pregnancy experience might impact their opinion on the issue (Svenaeus, 2018).
In conclusion, the eight scholarly sources in the literature review establish that spiritual and political beliefs and other factors comprehensively impact public ideology on abortion in America. The literature further reveals that restricting laws and the absence of access to abortion clinics have deleteriously affected females’ well-being and rights. Further research is required to comprehend the consequences of public opinion and policy-related methods of abortion on women in the United States.
Adamczyk, A., Kim, C., & Dillon, L. (2020). Examining public opinion about abortion: a mixed-methods systematic review of research over the last 15 years. Sociological Inquiry, 90(4), 920-954.
Austin, N., & Harper, S. (2018). Assessing the impact of TRAP laws on abortion and women’s health in the USA: a systematic review. BMJ sexual & reproductive health, 44(2), 128- 134.
Bhalotra, S., Clots-Figueras, I., & Iyer, L. (2021). Religion and abortion: The role of politician identity. Journal of Development Economics, 153, 102746.
Cook, E. A. (2019). Between two absolutes: Public opinion and the politics of abortion. Routledge.
Grossman, D., Perritt, J., & Grady, D. (2022). The impending crisis of access to safe abortion care in the US. JAMA Internal Medicine.
Kortsmit, K., Jatlaoui, T. C., Mandel, M. G., Reeves, J. A., Oduyebo, T., Petersen, E., & Whiteman, M. K. (2020). Abortion surveillance—United States, 2018. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 69(7), 1.
Maddow-Zimet, I. (2022, August 30). Pregnancies, Births and Abortions in the United States, 1973–2017: National and State Trends by Age. Guttmacher Institute.
Svenaeus, F. (2018). Phenomenology of pregnancy and the ethics of abortion. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy, 21(1), 77–87.
Late-term abortion entails pregnancy termination by induced abortion during a late gestation stage. Largely, abortion has been a controversial debate, with different individuals trying to prove their points on that topic. Abortion takes place at different stages of gestation, with the practice being more prevalent in the first trimester than in the others. Despite 1.3%of abortions occurring after the 21st week of pregnancy and less than 1% happening after the 24th week, the latter receives more attention and concern than any other stage within the United States. The low percentage of late termination of abortion indicates how the practice is rare. However, “late,” in this case, is not well defined within society despite many individuals using the term to indicate beyond the first 20 weeks after fertilization. On the other hand, medical practitioners and publications use distinct gestation age thresholds. Whereas some individuals oppose the later termination of pregnancy, the practice can benefit society.
Late termination of pregnancy tends to be more controversial than abortion from different perspectives, including politics. Many European countries permitted abortion in the later stages of pregnancies under specific situations. These circumstances vary from one country to another and among women, including health, accessibility, and financial issues. For instance, statistics reports about abortion in Australia indicate that 92% of abortions were conducted before 14 weeks, 6% were between 14 and 20 weeks, and about 2% were conducted later (Cations et al., 2020). Individuals who experienced late termination of pregnancy – beyond 20 weeks – cited actual or probable fetal abnormalities.
Other countries, such as England, Canada, Wales, and Scotland, to mention a few, have reported more or less similar statistics over the past few years. The figures indicate about 1% of individuals performing the practice do it beyond the first 20 weeks. The United States is no exception. However, this practice must meet specific conditions, like in Norway, where an individual must apply for a special medical assessment from the “Abortion Board,” which determines whether to abort or not (KFF, 2019). It indicates that when an individual follows legal criteria, including meeting all the needs, she can undertake the practice at different stages of gestation, including late termination of abortion.
A person can have an abortion later in pregnancy due to numerous reasons. For instance, there are non-medical reasons. Numerous agencies and organizations, such as the University of California San Francisco, have researched why a woman would seek an abortion later in her pregnancy. AlmostAlmost half the sample size, most women who obtained an abortion beyond 20 years indicated they did not suspect being pregnant until later in pregnancy. Other women also stated a lack of information about the relevant institutions to access an abortion, inability to pay the bills, including the entire procedure, transportation difficulties, and lack of insurance coverage to cater to some costs (Cohen et al., 2021).
Such statistics are unsurprising due to the cost-prohibitive nature of the entire process, especially with the cost of an abortion at 20 weeks being more than $2000, excluding costs for transport and lost wages. It is worse for adults, as reports indicate that 40% of these individuals do not save enough to cater to emergency expenses, prompting a delay in raising the necessary funds to pay for the bills. Furthermore, only 16% of all the abortion-providing facilities within the United States provide the service at 24 weeks or beyond, while at 20 weeks, 34 percent (Cohen et al., 2021). It depicts that an individual will have to travel a significant distance to find an appropriate facility with available, trained personnel. It shows how sometimes circumstances can delay an abortion prompting late termination of pregnancy.
The other reason individuals can seek late termination of pregnancy is fetal anomalies. Medical reasons can trigger a person to seek an abortion later in pregnancy (Sutton et al., 2022). The advanced technologies in the medical system have made it possible for early genetic fetal anomalies detection during pregnancy, including chronic villus sampling diagnosing down syndrome at ten weeks gestation. It is always a different case, especially structural feat anomalies, due to a fetal anatomy scan conducted later in pregnancy, at 20 weeks. The part of routine scan detects such fetal anomalies late in pregnancy that failed to be discovered on a previous occasion. Most of them are lethal fetal anomalies, such as Cantrell’s limb body wall complex and pentalogy. In most cases, these lethal fetal anomalies render the fetus susceptible to death before or almost immediately after birth. A study that Washington University Hospital conducted indicates that the fetus’s nonviability status usually leaves a parent with no choice other than to terminate the pregnancy, regardless of gestation age. Most individuals agree on pregnancy termination as the management option in such circumstances, especially soon after diagnosing lethal fetal anomalies.
The other reason is the health risk to the pregnant person. Life-threatening conditions and circumstances do not select the appropriate time to occur. Instead, they happen at any time to anybody, regardless of their condition. Sometimes, pregnant individuals become more susceptible to such conditions. Such health situations include newly diagnosed cancer that needs urgent treatment, preeclampsia, and intrauterine infection. The latter is always in conjunction with amniotic sac premature rupture. These are life-threatening conditions that a pregnant individual can undergo, and the only option that the individual has is to terminate the pregnancy (Sutton et al., 2022). When any of these conditions occur before the fetus is not viable, the person may pursue an abortion to preserve her health and life. On the other hand, if the fetus is viable and any such conditions arise, the pregnant individual can also consider late termination of pregnancy under Roe v. Wade, which protects her. However, in most cases, healthcare practitioners will always try and make every effort to save the life of a pregnant person and the fetus.
On the other side of the debate concerning late termination of pregnancy, individuals cite the practice’s adverse effects on society. They base on the fetus’s viability, specifically the right to live. The opponent of abortion in the later stages of pregnancy state the fetus has a right to live like other humans per universal human rights, and no one should choose what is best at the expense of the innocent fetus. The other reason that the individuals cite is laws and policies enacted to prevent late termination of pregnancy are excellent indications for the practice being an indication for the practice being inhumane and unethical in all aspects of life (Dahl et al., 2021).
Furthermore, some have cited that beyond 20 weeks, the fetus starts feeling pain, and some states have enacted laws relying on the information. Individuals exposing a fetus to abortion at such a stage or beyond is like intentionally inflicting pain on it. They also cite the health effects on the pregnant person, including mental and physical problems (Cohen, 2021). However, some of these details are misinformation in society. For instance, no medical evidence indicates the fetus feels pain due to immature brain development and neural networks. Scientific data indicate such conditions can only be possible when the fetus is over 29 weeks. Research has also indicated less risk of physical and psychological morbidity and mortality among individuals; it does not increase depression, anxiety, or stress conditions in short- or long-term risks. Instead, sexual assault, violence among sexual partners, and individuals with previous mental problems could experience negative outcomes after abortion.
In conclusion, the late termination of pregnancy has received disproportionate attention in our society’s news, legal and political realm regarding laws and policy-making activities. Despite abortions at or beyond 20 weeks being uncommon, in most cases, society permits them under specific circumstances. Roe v. Wade revolutionized the topic of abortion, and the United States, specifically regarding the viability and abortion regulation. “Viability” in this context does not mean a set date in pregnancy but rather other factors ranging from medical intervention availability to gestation age and fetal weight. The case also led to many states passing laws that allowed and restricted access to abortion, especially in the latter stages of pregnancy. Misinformation has done more harm regarding the late termination of pregnancy. Individuals should apply legitimate and scientific information when making crucial decisions in such cases of abortion in later stages because it can be helpful to the pregnant person and society in general.
Cations, M., Ripper, M., and Dwayer, J. (2020). Majority support for access to abortion care, including later in abortion in South Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. Vol. 44(5), 349-352.
Cohen, M., Kapp, N., and Edelman, A. (2021). Abortion care beyond 13 weeks’ gestation: a global perspective. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Vol. 64(3), 460-474.
Dahl, S., Vaksdal, R., and Barra, M. (2021). Abortion and multifetal pregnancy reduction; An ethical comparison. Etikk I Praksis-Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics. Pg. 51-73.
KFF. (2019). Abortions later in pregnancy. Retrieved from https://ww.kff.org/womens-health-policy/fact-sheet/abortion-later-in-pregnancy/
Miller, E. (2021). Maintaining exceptionality: Interrogating gestational limits for abortion. Social and Legal Studies.
Sutton, R., Murphy, A., and Petterson, A. (2022). The politics of abortion, pregnancy, and motherhood. The Cambridge Handbook of political psychology. Pg. 272.
Why Abortion Should Be Legal
Abortion has been a very sensitive topic in the United States and globally. The idea comes with negative connotations and receives backlash from politicians, religious leaders, and pro-life advocates. There has been a lot of debate surrounding the issue of abortion, with both sides having valid points. The pro-abortion argument is mainly centered on the idea that women have a right to autonomy over their bodies and should be able to make decisions about their pregnancies without interference from the government or any other external entity. On the other hand, the pro-life argument focuses on the idea that abortion is equivalent to murder and should not be allowed under any circumstances. Notably, the fact the rates of abortions have been going up in the U.S. makes it a public health issue.
For example, in 2021, 44% of the pregnancies in the country were unwanted (Augustine et al. 628). Unwanted in this case, meaning that even though the couples might have been planning to have children in the future, they had not prepared for a child during that time. So, 2.8 million out of the 6.2 million recorded pregnancies in 2021 were not planned for. Therefore, 45 out of 1000 women in the United States have unplanned pregnancies every year, equating to roughly 4.5 % of the women in the country (Augustine et al. 630). Concisely, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average American household in 2021 had two children under 18 years, decreasing from 3 in 1966 to seven in 1800 (Augustine et al. 635).
According to the same data, on average, women in the United States want to have two children. That means they will spend at least three years of their lives pregnant, postpartum, or attempting to become pregnant. After that, it is a three-decade fight or more than three-quarters of their reproductive life trying not to get pregnant. Even though contraceptives exist, they sometimes fail to work, or people might recklessly use them, resulting in unplanned pregnancies. However, having a child is not like buying a shoe at a Nike store where you can return it does not meet your expectations. Therefore, having a child is a lifelong commitment that takes a lot of planning and preparation, both emotionally and financially; therefore, women need the autonomy to decide whether they want to keep the pregnancy or terminate it (Augustine et al. 640)
Maria de Bruyn (4) mentions that women who have experienced a termination of pregnancy express a myriad of emotions and psychological issues such as sadness, grief, anxiety, and even depression. One of the reasons identified as the causal factor is the lack of proper risk screening during abortions. This is mainly because of the fact that the idea of an abortion is highly stigmatized in society, so women want to go through the process as fast as possible without following the appropriate procedures. In other cases, abortion might be illegal in their state, so there are no available protocols for how abortion should be conducted. Cowan (265) points out conflicts or defects in the decision-making process as another issue facing women who want to abort because they constantly battle government policies, lack of proper abortion safety procedures, conflicting maternal desires, and moral beliefs, and inadequate pre-abortion counseling.
Raifman (780) highlights that every year 42 million pregnancies are terminated worldwide. Around 20 million of those abortions are unsafe. Out of the 20 million, 5 million women experience long time health effects. In the United States, at least 68,000 women die annually from unsafe abortion procedures. Therefore, unsafe abortion is a pressing public health concern. Maria de Bruyn (6) adds that the current methods that exist to prevent safe face social, religious, and political obstacles. With that said, destigmatizing abortions gives women access to educational materials and services about contraception and the availability of legal and safe abortion, and women and postabortion services.
Primitive Abortion Laws
Currently, abortion is legal in most states except Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas, with limited exceptions. Notably, certain restrictions have been placed on abortions by some of the states where abortion is legal. For example, a state might only allow abortion in cases of rape or incest or if the mother’s life is in danger. Some states also require parental consent for minors seeking abortions, while others have a 24-hour waiting period. The Roe v.Wade case set a foundation of abortion law in the United States, codifying, regulating, and limiting whether, when, and under which circumstances a woman should terminate their pregnancy (Raifman 783).
- Physician and Hospital Requirements– 32 states require a pregnancy termination to be performed by a licensed physician, 17 states require that the process involve two physicians, and 19 states require the procedure to only be performed in hospitals after a specific period of the pregnancy (Nih.gov np).
- Time of Termination – 43 of the 50 states prohibit pregnancy termination after a specific time unless in allowed circumstances that protect the mother’s life (Nih.gov np).
- Public Funding – 16 states allocate funds for all of the legally accepted abortion procedures, if not most. On the other hand, other states prohibit using public funds for pregnancy termination unless the mother’s life is in danger or the pregnancy is a result of incest or rape (Nih.gov np).
- Insurance – 12 states prohibit coverage of pregnancy termination procedures in private insurance plans. However, most other states often limit the coverage to when the mother’s life is in danger (Nih.gov np).
- Counseling – 17 states mandate that people should be provided with counseling services before and after the abortion process, which should include information such as:
- The link between cancer and pregnancy termination
- The ability of the fetus to feel pain after 12 weeks
- The associated psychological issues related to abortions
- Waiting Period – 24 states require a waiting period of 24 hours, between which the mother is counseled, and the procure is performed afterward (Nih.gov np).
Discussion on Primitive Abortion Laws
As seen above, even though most states allow abortion, they have a lot of restrictions on the topic. Currently, even though women have access to information and contraceptives, situations might still arise where they need to terminate their pregnancies. Unsafe abortions, due to tight regulations, come with socio-economic burdens such as death, high medical bills, incarceration, and societal stigmatization. States also incur heavy medical costs trying to save the lives of people who face danger due to unsafe abortions. As highlighted above, only 12 states out of 50 allocate public funds dedicated to safe abortion procedures. Notably, only 17 states provide mandated pre and post-counseling sessions during abortion procedures (Nih.gov np). This means that women in other states considering abortion are exposed to unwanted risk factors such as long-term mental problems (depression). It also leaves people with hefty financial burdens they have to incur in order to terminate their pregnancies. Supporting abortions would save most states a lot of money and allow women to live productive and fulfilling lives. Legal policies are vital for such a controversial idea to be readily accepted nationwide. Notably, anti-abortion and pro-choice lobbyists expend a lot of effort on influencing abortion policies and laws in the country. They usually work on adopting restrictive laws that make it difficult for women to get safe abortions in the country (Thomas et al. 363).
Common Misconceptions About Abortions
One of the most common misconceptions about abortions is that they are always unsafe. However, this is simply not true. While there are some risks associated with any medical procedure, the vast majority of abortions are safe and complication-free. Another common misconception is that abortions are only ever performed on young women. However, this is also not true – abortion procedures are often performed on women of all ages, including older women who may be facing health concerns or difficult life circumstances. Finally, another common misconception is that abortion is always a difficult decision for a woman to make. While it can be challenging for some of them, it is also straightforward for others based on their reason for the procedure. Ideally, such misconceptions about abortion can often lead to judgment and stigma, which can make it harder for women to access safe and legal abortions (Thomas et al. 364). It is important to remember that each woman’s situation is unique and that she should be able to make their decisions about whether or not to have an abortion without interference from others.
The Risks of Illegal Abortions
There are several risks associated with illegal or unsafe abortions. One of the most serious risks is that the procedure may be performed by someone who is not trained or experienced in performing abortions. This can often lead to complications, such as infection, excessive bleeding, or damage to the internal organs. Additionally, illegal abortions often take place in unsanitary conditions, which can also increase the risk of infection or other complications (Koch et al. 4). Finally, because illegal abortions are often performed clandestinely, women may be reluctant to seek medical help if something goes wrong, which can make it difficult to treat any complications that do arise.
Instances Where Abortion Might be Necessary
There are many reasons why a woman might want to terminate her pregnancy. Firstly, some women do not feel ready to be mothers or may already have children they are struggling to care for. Therefore, terminating the pregnancy allows them to focus and dedicate the available resources to their existing children (Koch et al. 2). Others may be in abusive relationships or simply cannot afford to have a child. If, for example, a woman lives with a partner who beats them, it would be unfair to bring a child into such a treacherous environment. Thirdly, some women may have health problems such as fibroids and high blood pressure that make it dangerous for them to carry a pregnancy to term. Lastly, some pregnancies are the result of rape or incest, and the woman may not want to go through with the pregnancy for psychological reasons. Sometimes people are sexually abused by strangers or family members, and bearing the resultant child might be a reminder of a traumatic experience (Koch et al. 4).
Factors Affecting Access to Safe Abortions
There are a number of factors that can affect a woman’s ability to access safe and legal abortions. One of the most important factors is whether or not abortion is legal in individual states where these women live. If abortion is illegal, women often have to travel long distances to get to a clinic where they can receive a safe and legal procedure. This can be expensive, time-consuming, and difficult, particularly for women who live in rural areas or who have limited financial resources. Another factor affecting access to safe abortions is the availability of trained medical professionals. In some states, only a handful of clinics offer abortion services, and these clinics may not always have the staff or resources necessary to provide safe and high-quality care. Finally, stigma and judgment can also make it difficult for women to access safe abortions (Vilda, Dovile, et al. 1702). If a woman feels like she will be judged or stigmatized for having an abortion, she may be less likely to seek out the procedure, even if it is legal and available.
Positive Impacts of Making Abortion Legal
Abortion, even though highly controversial, has a positive impact on women’s lives. Firstly, it allows them to control their bodies and make decisions about their own lives without fear of being stigmatized. Additionally, it enables them to finish their education or pursue their careers without worrying about raising an unplanned child. For the longest time throughout history, women across the world have had limited rights regarding what they can do and say. Only recently have women started getting equal treatment after years of advocacy. Therefore, just like their male counterparts, women also need time for personal growth, which unplanned or unwanted pregnancies can hinder. Importantly, this statement does not condone reckless sexual behaviors but rather an alternative in case mistakes happen. Abortion also allows women to escape abusive relationships and unhealthy situations. In some cases, it may even save a woman’s life if the pregnancy is putting her health at risk. Legalizing abortion would allow more women to get safe, legal abortions, ultimately improving their lives (Vilda, Dovile, et al. 1696).
Demerits of Supporting Abortions
While abortion may have some positive impacts, it would be naïve to neglect the other side of the story. It is important to consider the potential negative consequences as well.
One of the biggest concerns is that legalizing abortion could lead to more women seeking abortions as a form of contraception. According to (Vilda, Dovile, et al. 1698), half of the women who opt for termination of pregnancies have already had one or more abortions before. This, therefore, creates a scenario where people might view it as a form of family planning. Additionally, there is always the risk of complications when undergoing an abortion, which could lead to serious health problems or even death in some cases. It is also worth noting that abortions can have a significant emotional impact on the woman involved – in some cases, it can lead to feelings of guilt, sadness, and regret.
The need to control one’s own body is a human rights principle that contravenes dominant patriarchal attitudes and practices. In some cases, however, it may be difficult for women who are faced with an unwanted pregnancy because of cultural beliefs or financial constraints to obtain abortion services. This leads them into denied care situations where they can experience health problems such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, etcetera. Whatever the reason, it is ultimately up to the woman to decide whether or not she wants to have an abortion. The decision to have an abortion is personal and should be made by the woman without interference from the government or anyone else. Abortions should be legal in all 50 states without primitive restrictions so that women can make this decision without worrying about breaking the law. Additionally, making abortion illegal does not stop women from getting them; it just makes them more dangerous. Safe, legal abortion should be available to all women in the United States.
Augustine, Grace L., and Alessandro Piazza. “Category evolution under conditions of stigma: The segregation of abortion provision into specialist clinics in the United States.” Organization Science 33.2 (2022): 624-649.
Beckman, Linda J. “Abortion in the United States: The continuing controversy.” Feminism & Psychology 27.1 (2017): 101-113.
Cowan, Sarah K. “Enacted abortion stigma in the United States.” Social science & medicine 177 (2017): 259-268.
Koch, Valerie Gutmann. “Norms Reborn: Controversies and Challenges for the Future of Reproductive Technologies.” Houston Journal of Health Law & Policy 22.1 (2022): 1-6.
Maria de Bruyn. “The Acceptability and Accessibility of Safe Abortion. A Literature Review.” ResearchGate, unknown, Mar. 2015, www.researchgate.net/publication/274082829_The_acceptability_and_accessibility_of_safe_abortion_A_literature_review.
Raifman, Sarah, et al. “Exploring attitudes about the legality of self-managed abortion in the U.S.: Results from a nationally representative survey.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 19.2 (2022): 574-587.
Thomas, Rachel G., Alison H. Norris, and Maria F. Gallo. “Anti-legal attitude toward abortion among abortion patients in the United States.” Contraception 96.5 (2017): 357-364.
Vilda, Dovile, et al. “State abortion policies and maternal death in the United States, 2015‒2018.” American Journal of Public Health 111.9 (2021): 1696-1704.
“What Are Some Common Complications of Pregnancy?” Https://Www.nichd.nih.gov/, 20 Apr. 2021, www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancy/conditioninfo/complications
Abortion – Pro-Life
Abortion refers to the termination of the fetus’ life before its maturity. Abortion is among the most debated topics among supporters and opponents. Many people argue about whether abortion should be legalized or not, and they have different reasons for their choices. Endless debates are made concerning the specific topic globally, and the points given by each side are the same. Other groups believe that abortion is a personal topic and should not be a subject for discussion. Ending abortion is a decision that should be supported and debated to help create awareness of its effects both on the mother and the unborn child. Abortion should be illegal in all states except in certain situations since it is the murder of a defenseless unborn child.
Abortion should be illegalized globally. Since the process involves termination of life, the action is equal to murder. One of its detrimental effects is that it involves killing the unborn child but also risks the pregnant mother’s life (Blackshaw & Rodger, 2019). Mothers who carry out an abortion, especially at home, are exposed to bacterial infections and septicemia that can result in death. Moreover, abortion can result in long time complications in the mother’s life, such increased risk of miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies in the future due to a weakened uterine wall. Diseases such as pelvic inflammatory diseases are also associated with abortion, resulting in other health complications (Tatalovich, 2019). Even though individuals argue that legal abortion has fewer risks and effects on a woman’s health, the side effects are more gruesome than the advantages; therefore, abortion should be illegalized.
It is argued that women have the right to choose “my body, my choice,” and abortion is better than carrying an unwanted or neglected child. However, this argument does not consider the life of the woman and the unborn child. Even though women have the right to make their decisions, no human being has the right to terminate human life (Tatalovich, 2019). Abortion, therefore, conflicts with the unalienable rights of the fetus. If the child is neglected, such parents should be jailed for violating children’s rights. Having the right to make decisions and child neglect do not hold a stand to terminate life.
People propose that abortion relieves the woman to continue with her life and live up to her choices. However, abortion does not offer peace of mind to a woman. Statistics show that approximately 59% of the women who commit abortion are susceptible to depression, stress, and suicidal thoughts. In addition, 61% of the total woman have increased chances of mood disorders and social anxiety. At the same time, a larger percentage is predisposed to drug and substance abuse due to stress and depression (Mattalucci & De Zordo, 2022). Since abortion is detrimental both to the pregnant mother and the fetus, the practice should be prohibited globally. Using birth control measures can help one escape from the abortion crisis. For example, birth control pills and family planning are measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies among youths. No one has the right to terminate life; it is murder, and serious actions should be taken against such individuals (Maurya, 2021). However, in very few situations should the practice be legalized; for example, in case the health of the pregnant mother is at risk, medical abortion can be done. For example, mothers with preeclampsia are highly predisposed to placental rupture, which can result in organ failure; in such cases, medical abortion should be allowed.
Abortion is morally wrong. It contradicts the laws of nature and the right to life. Moreover, the practice greatly affects the pregnant woman, including infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, stress and depression, and indulging in drug and substance abuse. Due to these reasons, it is everyone’s encouragement and bid to fight against abortion, prohibit the practice, and save lives.
Blackshaw, B. P., & Rodger, D. (2019). The problem of spontaneous abortion: is the pro-life position morally monstrous?. The new bioethics, 25(2), 103-120. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20502877.2019.1602376
Mattalucci, C., & De Zordo, S. (2022). Demographic Anxiety and Abortion: Italian Pro-Life Volunteers’ and Gynecologists’ Perspectives. Medical Anthropology, 1-15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01459740.2022.2087181
Maurya, B. R. (2021). A state-of-the-art review on the impacts of abortion. ACADEMICIA: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 11(12), 662-668. https://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:aca&volume=11&issue=12&article=104
Tatalovich, R. (2019). Abortion: Prochoice Versus Pro-life. In Social Regulatory Policy (pp. 177-209). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429306358-7/abortion-raymond-tatalovich
Legalization of Abortion
Abortion is a debate among health specialists across the world. Abortion has led to scientists not coming up with a solution on whether to legalize abortion. Most abortions occur among teenagers, and pregnancies are unexpected. Therefore for teenagers to get rid of unintended pregnancies, they opt to commit abortion. Scientists have discovered that most women get unexpected pregnancies before the age of 45. Abortion appears to be a personal affair because it influences one’s health and lifestyle. The paper below is going to shed light on why religion, political parties and the health fraternity are against abortion.
Christianity does not allow abortion in any way because it is immoral. The Roman Catholic Church they have always maintained that the intentional killing of the unborn baby is wrong in all circumstances. The Roman Catholic Church referred to the book of Genesis (1:27), which explains how God created man in his own image. The Christian religion does not allow abortion and therefore states that if you have an abortion, you are killing the image of God.
Political parties in countries have been at the forefront of the banning of abortion. According to Randolph (2006, PARA 15), the Republican Party does not support the legalization of abortion. The Republicans cite abortion as violating human rights. They also view committing abortion as going against the traditions and morals of society. In this case, abortion lowers the dignity of women in society and therefore is a taboo.
Abortion leads to the death of a woman during the process if not performed well by a doctor. According to (Gerdts et al., 2016), the information was gathered on the death of the women from the files of all states containing the information. The contacts of the women were taken, and when they tried to reach them, their phone numbers were not going through. Their secondary contacts stated that the woman had died. The death certificates of the women were also counter-checked to confirm whether the information relayed was true. The death certificate confirmed that the woman died after performing an abortion. Termination of the fetus before maturity can therefore lead to the death of an individual. This is caused by excessive bleeding during the process and interference of the body organs during termination, depending on the method used.
Abortion leads to the development of haemorrhages in women, according to (Calvert et al., 2018) from the data that was extracted in hospital admissions. The data was collected on those who had a severe condition of haemorrhage. To the study, excessive bleeding in a woman leads to the weakening of the victims.
Women who once engaged in abortion reported life-threatening complications. According to (Gerdts et al., 2016), women had threatening conditions such as eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The women having an abortion did not have these conditions. Women who gave birth suggested the need to reduce physical events for a while at least three times than suggested by the women who received an abortion. In the group of women admitted in the Turnaway Study, of death of a woman was noted. This suggests that abortion causes future effects which are seen during progressive birth.
It is evident that abortion is dangerous to women and leads to complications which lead to death. The complications can either occur during abortion or after abortion when giving birth. Due to the risky dangers of abortion, the government should ban abortion to performed in any case to avoid an increased mortality rate. Specialists should also create awareness among the public and the dangers of engaging in this immoral behavior.
Calvert, C., Owolabi, O., Yeung, F., Pittrof, R., Ganatra, B., & Tunçalp, Ö. et al. (2018). The magnitude and severity of abortion-related morbidity in settings with limited access to abortion services: a systematic review and meta-regression. BMJ Global Health, 3(3), e000692. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000692
Gerdts, C., Dobkin, L., Foster, D., & Schwarz, E. (2016). Side Effects, Physical Health Consequences, and Mortality Associated with Abortion and Birth after an Unwanted Pregnancy. Women’s Health Issues, 26(1), 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2015.10.001
Joe O’Dea on Abortion — Joe O’Dea For Colorado. Joe O’Dea For Colorado. (2022). Retrieved 1 September 2022, from https://www.joeodea.com/abortion.